Cardiff Castle

Has been described as a Certain Timber Castle (Motte), and also as a Certain Masonry Castle

There are major building remains

NameCardiff Castle
Alternative NamesCaerdydd; Caerdiff; Caerdyf; Kidis; Kerdif; Caertoph
Historic CountryGlamorgan
Modern AuthorityCardiff
1974 AuthoritySouth Glamorgan
CommunityCastle

Cardiff Castle was established within the walls of a mighty Roman fort by William I of England in about 1081. The castle had a chequered history and fell into decline following the civil war. From 1776 a program of landscaping, clearance and reconstruction was embarked upon and from 1868 through to the 1920s the castle was transformed according to the fantastical Gothic plans of William Burgess and the Roman walls were cleared and reconstructed. The great castle mound in the north-west corner of the fort was probably thrown up in the late eleventh century and its great shell keep was added soon afterwards, if not in the same operation. The fort was divided into two courts; the smaller inner court with the lord's apartments and offices, and the larger outer court where the county court and the knight's of the shire's houses were found. The Roman walls were retained about the inner court, but were covered by a great earthen bank around the outer court. The borough to the south was enclosed by strong walls and towers. The castle apartments are on the west side of the inner court. The earliest fabric is early fifteenth century, but this is almost all the work of William Burgess and the towers and halls owe little to the medieval castle. (Coflein)

A Roman timber fort stood on the site from circa AD55-60, successively rebuilt, until around 280 a large stone fort was built, whose foundations define the present castle enclosure. Around 1081, William I built a motte within the Roman enclosure, upon which the present polygonal stone keep was built about 50 years later. This was modified c1300 with addition of S tower; an inner bailey wall was constructed, and probably the Black Tower. Around 1429-39, Richard Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick built a polygonal tower and new domestic range against W wall The range was enlarged in the late C16 by Henry Herbert, Second Earl of Pembroke

The castle was inherited by Lord Mountstuart, later the first Marquess of Bute in 1776 who had the western apartments modified by Henry Holland, and the grounds landscaped by Lancelot Brown. Further work 1817. Some work to Black Tower by John Prichard, 1850. From 1868, the Third Marquess of Bute employed William Burges (1827-1881), amongst the most important Gothic revival architects and designers of the period, to transform the castle into a High Victorian medieval fantasy with particularly exotic interiors, executed by a team of leading artists and craftsmen. The castle also retains important fittings and furnishings from this period. Burges' sources range across much of European Gothic art; the Arab Room introduces an Islamic influence. Burges' schemes were continued after his death by William Frame, although Burges' elaborate Grand Staircase, partially completed, was removed in early C20. The S gate and barbican Tower by J P Grant, 1920s; West gate 1921. The Roman walls were exposed and rebuilt to more than their original height between 1891and 1923. The Castle was given to the City in 1947 by the 5th Marquess of Bute.

The interior has 17 rooms to the designs of Burges, and others show his guidance. Many of the rooms are of unrivalled sumptuousness and fantasy. CLOCK TOWER has rib-vaulted Winter Smoking room with decoration on the theme of Time. Above this, the Bachelor bedroom with theme of mineral wealth, bathroom with Penarth alabaster.The elaborate Summer smoking room with gallery, ribbed and painted dome, tiled floor, painted wall tiles. GUEST TOWER has Nursery with painted tiles of fables and nursery rhymes, overmantle with figures of Fame and Aesop's fox fables. Walnut Room with overmantle of Jack and the Beanstalk. ARAB ROOM with Islamic vault, trellis work, multi-coloured marble floor; marble walls, Arabic stained glass. BANQUETING HALL has open timber roof with fan vaulting and angels. Wooden screen to S. Chimneypiece in form of castle with equestrian figure of Robert, Earl of Gloucester. Wall-paintings of his exploits. OCTAGON STAIR in Beauchamp Tower; stone newell and Mouchette balustrade, paintings of Aesop's fables. Small vaulted ORATORY in French Gothic style. LIBRARY has paired Gothic doorways with relief monkeys; Gothic bookcases; chimneypiece with 5 seated figures representing alphabets and Third Marquess. ENTRANCE HALL (1930). LORD BUTE'S STUDY has lierne vault with foliage bosses and painted birds; panelled walls. Nearby, Office and NOAH ROOM. DRAWING ROOM in simple classical style. DINING ROOM uses scenes from life of Abraham to illustrate hospitality. Heavy painted ceiling with cylindrical beams. Overmantel with sculpted figures of Abraham and Sarah flanking 3 angels over Greek inscription. Stained glass with scenes from life of Abraham; carved and inlaid shutters. LADY BUTE'S APPARTMENT include panelled bedroom, and bathroom with stained glass roundels. CHAUCER ROOM decorated with scenes from Chaucer; octagonal plan top lit from fleche of Beauchamp Tower. Lantern has 2 levels of stained glass with figures from Canterbury Tales, and scenes from Tales, and Chaucerian subjects in tracery glass.Stencilled timbers to lantern. Crocketed arches with murals of Legend of Good Women (corbels of female figures). Walnut panelling inlaid with mother of pearl. Marble chimneypiece with female figures hanging heraldic shield on tree.Tiled floor with vine-leaf maze. Above dining room, LORD BUTE'S SITTING ROOM decorated with scenes of life of St Blane (Patron Saint of Isle of Bute); on door, painting of Seven Deadly Sins overcome by Virtue. Brass overmantel with sculpted beavers on lintel. LORD BUTE'S BEDROOM has ceiling with heavy beams on stone corbels supported by green marble shafts; 3 arches to each wall; beyond bedroom, bathroom. The ROOF GARDEN has marble-faced court with bronze columns supporting tiled roof; mosaic floor. Combination of Medieval and Pompeian styles; wall tiles, and Hebrew inscriptions; bronze fountain and statue of Virgin and Child.

Castle entered from S at Black tower (polygonal turret to rear) and S gate (rebuilt 1920s) with towers to R. South walls to W of Black Tower reconstructed in Medieval style by Burges with battlements with flaps between merlons, and slate roof. Curtain walls to SE, E and N reconstructed in Roman Style with crenellations, polygonal turrets, and enclosed wall-walk with arched openings. North wall has central gate with turret to each side; course of pink stone separates Roman Work from reconstruction. To N of N gate, wooden bridge on concrete piers in Roman style. On W side of enclosure, stretch of medieval curtain wall with C20 turret. West front of apartments has, from N, Bute Tower (raised 2 storeys by Burges) statues in arcading, tall square turret to L. Polygonal Beauchamp tower with machicolations and wooden (C19) fleche. Below, reconstructed West Gate (1920s). Square Herbert Tower (raised 2 storeys by Burges) with steep slate roof. Guest tower: gable end of tank tower. At SW corner, Clock tower, machicolated, with heraldic shields, polychrome statues, gilt clock faces, pyramidal lead roof of 2 stages with clerestorey windows of Smoking Room; stair turret to N. In bailey, Motte surrounded by moat re-excavated in C19. Stone keep dodecagonal in plan; lias w freestone angles; S tower with turret (C20); stairs with base of turret enclosing well. Former curtain wall marked with modern masonry. Rear of S curtain with wooden walkway and lead? gargoyles; walkway continues round Clock Tower. E front of Western appartments has then tank tower with steeply-pitched slate roof to gallery. Then tall guest tower with tall polygonal turret to R. Steps up to Entrance to L of Beauchamp range with 5 polygonal turrets (but S turret to R of doorway 1927). North block (Holland) of 3 windows plus one set back Gothic fenestration (C20). (Listed Building Report)

Robert Fitzhamon, the Norman Lord of Gloucester, drawn into the quarrels of the Welsh princes, defeated Iestyn ap Gwrgan, Prince of Glamorgan, in 1091. He saw the strategic value of the site of the old Roman fort and built his Norman castle here. The Normans concentrated their defensive works into the western half of the site, which became the 'inner' ward. At the northern end of this part, Fitzhamon built a 'motte', or mound, 40 feet high and surrounded it by a moat. This Keep, or strong-point, was surmounted by a timber stockade giving shelter and protection to the wooden buildings which housed the lord, his household and his garrison. ... (Cardiff Castle, 2010, Castle timeline)

This site is a scheduled monument protected by law

This is a Grade 1 listed building protected by law

Historic Wales CADW listed database record number
The National Monument Record (Coflein) number(s)
County Historic Environment Record
OS Map Grid ReferenceST180765
Latitude51.4826583862305
Longitude-3.18189001083374
Eastings318080
Northings176590
HyperLink HyperLink HyperLink
Copyright givingnot and licensed for reuse under this Creative Commons license.
Copyright givingnot and licensed for reuse under this Creative Commons license.
Copyright givingnot and licensed for reuse under this Creative Commons license.
Copyright givingnot and licensed for reuse under this Creative Commons license.
Copyright givingnot and licensed for reuse under this Creative Commons license.
Copyright givingnot and licensed for reuse under this Creative Commons license.
Copyright givingnot and licensed for reuse under this Creative Commons license.
Copyright givingnot and licensed for reuse under this Creative Commons license.
Copyright givingnot and licensed for reuse under this Creative Commons license.
Copyright givingnot and licensed for reuse under this Creative Commons license.
Copyright givingnot and licensed for reuse under this Creative Commons license.
Copyright givingnot and licensed for reuse under this Creative Commons license.
Copyright givingnot and licensed for reuse under this Creative Commons license.
Copyright givingnot and licensed for reuse under this Creative Commons license.
Copyright givingnot and licensed for reuse under this Creative Commons license.
Copyright givingnot and licensed for reuse under this Creative Commons license.
Copyright givingnot and licensed for reuse under this Creative Commons license.
Copyright givingnot and licensed for reuse under this Creative Commons license.
Copyright givingnot and licensed for reuse under this Creative Commons license.
Copyright givingnot and licensed for reuse under this Creative Commons license.
Copyright givingnot and licensed for reuse under this Creative Commons license.
Copyright givingnot and licensed for reuse under this Creative Commons license.
Copyright givingnot and licensed for reuse under this Creative Commons license.
Copyright givingnot and licensed for reuse under this Creative Commons license.
Copyright givingnot and licensed for reuse under this Creative Commons license.
Copyright Dave Barlow of Abaroths World All Rights Reserved
Copyright Dave Barlow of Abaroths World All Rights Reserved
Copyright Dave Barlow of Abaroths World All Rights Reserved
Copyright Dave Barlow of Abaroths World All Rights Reserved
Copyright Dave Barlow of Abaroths World All Rights Reserved
Copyright Dave Barlow of Abaroths World All Rights Reserved
Copyright Dave Barlow of Abaroths World All Rights Reserved
Copyright Dave Barlow of Abaroths World All Rights Reserved
Copyright Dave Barlow of Abaroths World All Rights Reserved
Copyright Dave Barlow of Abaroths World All Rights Reserved
Copyright Dave Barlow of Abaroths World All Rights Reserved
Copyright Dave Barlow of Abaroths World All Rights Reserved
Copyright Dave Barlow of Abaroths World All Rights Reserved
Copyright Dave Barlow of Abaroths World All Rights Reserved
Copyright Dave Barlow of Abaroths World All Rights Reserved
Copyright Dave Barlow of Abaroths World All Rights Reserved
Copyright Dave Barlow of Abaroths World All Rights Reserved
Copyright Dave Barlow of Abaroths World All Rights Reserved
Copyright Dave Barlow of Abaroths World All Rights Reserved
Copyright Dave Barlow of Abaroths World All Rights Reserved
Copyright Dave Barlow of Abaroths World All Rights Reserved
Copyright Dave Barlow of Abaroths World All Rights Reserved
Copyright Dave Barlow of Abaroths World All Rights Reserved
Copyright Dave Barlow of Abaroths World All Rights Reserved
Copyright Dave Barlow of Abaroths World All Rights Reserved
Copyright Dave Barlow of Abaroths World All Rights Reserved
Copyright Dave Barlow of Abaroths World All Rights Reserved
Copyright Dave Barlow of Abaroths World All Rights Reserved
Copyright Dave Barlow of Abaroths World All Rights Reserved
Copyright Dave Barlow of Abaroths World All Rights Reserved
Copyright Dave Barlow of Abaroths World All Rights Reserved
Copyright Dave Barlow of Abaroths World All Rights Reserved
Copyright Dave Barlow of Abaroths World All Rights Reserved
Copyright Dave Barlow of Abaroths World All Rights Reserved
Copyright Dave Barlow of Abaroths World All Rights Reserved
Copyright Dave Barlow of Abaroths World All Rights Reserved
Copyright Dave Barlow of Abaroths World All Rights Reserved
Copyright Dave Barlow of Abaroths World All Rights Reserved
Copyright Dave Barlow of Abaroths World All Rights Reserved
Copyright Dave Barlow of Abaroths World All Rights Reserved
Copyright Dave Barlow of Abaroths World All Rights Reserved
Copyright Dave Barlow of Abaroths World All Rights Reserved
Copyright Dave Barlow of Abaroths World All Rights Reserved
Copyright Dave Barlow of Abaroths World All Rights Reserved
Copyright Dave Barlow of Abaroths World All Rights Reserved
Copyright Dave Barlow of Abaroths World All Rights Reserved
Copyright Dave Barlow of Abaroths World All Rights Reserved
Copyright Dave Barlow of Abaroths World All Rights Reserved

Most of the sites or buildings recorded in this web site are NOT open to the public and permission to visit a site must always be sought from the landowner or tenant.

Calculate Print

Books

  • < >Higham, Robert, 2015, Shell-keeps re-visited: the bailey on the motte? (Castle Studies Group - online publication) online copy < >
  • Richardson, A., 2013, ‘Ancient and modern – Cardiff Castle’, in H.V. Bowen (ed.), Buildings and places in Welsh history: a new history of Wales (Llandysul: Gomer Press) p. 137-145
  • Goodall, John, 2011, The English Castle 1066-1650 (Yale University Press) passim
  • Kenyon, John, 2010, The Medieval Castles of Wales (University of Wales Press) p. 110-111
  • Purton, P.F., 2009, A History of the Early Medieval Siege c. 450-1220 (Woodbridge: The Boydell Press) p. 168
  • Morgan, Gerald, 2008, Castles in Wales: A Handbook (Talybont: Y Lolfa Cyf.) p. 135-9
  • Emery, Anthony, 2000, Greater Medieval Houses Vol. 2 (Cambridge) p. 630-1
  • Pettifer, Adrian, 2000, Welsh Castles, A Guide by Counties (Boydell Press) p. 87-90
  • Reid, Alan, 1998, Castles of Wales (John Jones Publishing) p. 43-4
  • Newman, J., 1995, Buildings of Wales: Glamorgan (Yale University Press) p. 194-211
  • < >RCAHMW, 1991, An Inventory of the Ancient Monuments in Glamorgan Vol. 3 Part 1a: The Early Castles (London: HMSO) < > MM1 p. 162-211
  • Salter, Mike, 1991, The Castles of Gwent, Glamorgan and Gower (Malvern) p. 44-6
  • King, D.J.C., 1983, Castellarium Anglicanum (London: Kraus) Vol. 1 p. 162, 171
  • Davis, Paul R., 1983, Castles of Glamorgan (Alun Books) p. 41
  • Fry, P.S., 1980, Castles of the British Isles (David and Charles) p. 335
  • 1978 ‘Cardiff Castle’ Annual Report 1977-78 (Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust) p. 10-12
  • Davies, C.G., 1976, The Lords of Cardiff Castle (C Glenn)
  • Renn, D.F., 1973 (2 edn.), Norman Castles of Britain (London: John Baker) p. 130-1
  • Hague, D.B., 1971, in Pugh, T.B. (ed), Glamorgan County History Vol. 3 The Middle Ages (Cardiff) p. 426-9, plates XVIII, XXVI-IX
  • Rees, W., 1969, 2 edn, Cardiff: A History of the City (Cardiff Corporation)
  • Colvin, H.M., Brown, R.Allen and Taylor, A.J., 1963, The history of the King's Works Vol. 2: the Middle Ages (London: HMSO) p. 650-1
  • Randall, Henry John, 1961, The Vale of Glamorgan, Studies in Landscape and History (Newport: R.H.Johns Ltd) p. 76
  • Oman, Charles W.C., 1926, Castles (1978 edn Beetham House: New York) p. 174-6
  • Armitage, Ella, 1912, The Early Norman Castles of the British Isles (London: John Murray) p. 276, 294-5 online copy
  • Clark, G.T., 1884, Mediaeval Military Architecture in England  (Wyman and Sons) Vol. 1 p. 336-50 (reprint of 1862 article) online copy
  • Timbs, J. and Gunn, A., 1872, Abbeys, Castles and Ancient Halls of England and Wales Vol. 3 (London) p. 461-2 online copy
  • Lewis, Samual, 1849, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales online copy
  • Homfray, Jeston, 1828, The Castles of the Lordship of Glamorgan (Cardiff) p. 13-19
  • Buck, Samuel and Nathenial, 1774, Buck’s Antiquities (London) Vol. 2 p. 396
  • Grose, Francis, 1785, The Antiquities of England and Wales (London) Vol. 7 p. 44-48 online copy

Antiquarian

Journals

  • Hall, M., 2013, ‘Putting back the gold: Cardiff Castle, Glamorganshire, part II’ Country Life Vol. 207.4 p. 48-53
  • Goodall, J., 2013, ‘An heir to Rome: Cardiff Castle, Glamorganshire, part I’ Country Life Vol. 207.3 p. 56-60
  • Anon, 2005, 'Cardiff - Plans for castle's future revealed' Castle Studies Group Newsletter Vol. 7 Issue 1 p. 2
  • Evans, Phil et al, 2004, 'Excavations in Cardiff Castle 2003' Archaeology in Wales Vol. 44
  • Bradley, J and Gaimster, M. (eds), 2004, 'Medieval Britain and Ireland in 2003' Medieval Archaeology Vol. 48 p. 338 download copy
  • Kenyon, John R., 1996, 'Fluctuating Frontiers: Normanno-Welsh Castle Warfare c. 1075 to 1240' Château Gaillard Vol. 17 p. 119-126
  • Knight, Jeremy K., 1994, 'Welsh Fortifications of the first Millenium A.D.' Château Gaillard Vol. 16 p. 277-284
  • Harfield, C.G., 1991, 'A Hand-list of Castles Recorded in the Domesday Book' English Historical Review Vol. 106 p. 371-392 view online copy (subscription required) p 371-92
  • Spurgeon, Jack, 1987, 'The Castles of Glamorgan' Château Gaillard Vol. 13 p. 209
  • Thompson, M.W., 1986, 'Associated monasteries and castles in the Middle Ages: a tentative list' The Archaeological Journal Vol. 143 p. 308
  • Webster, P.V., 1983, ‘Cardiff Castle’ Archaeology in Wales Vol. 23 p. 58
  • Webster, P., 1981, 'Archaeological notes: Cardiff Castle Excavations 1974-81' Morgannwg Vol. 25 p. 201-211 online copy
  • Webster, P. and J., 1979, 'Archaeological notes: Cardiff Castle' Morgannwg Vol. 23 p. 88-9 online copy
  • Webster, J. and P.V., 1979, 'Cardiff Castle' Archaeology in Wales Vol. 19 p. 29-30
  • Webster, P.V., 1978 'Cardiff Castle: the Excavation of a Crop Mark site' Aerial Archaeology Vol. 2, 56-7
  • Webster, P.V., 1978 'Cardiff Castle' Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust Annual Report 1977-78 p. 10-12
  • Webster, P., 1978, ‘Cardiff Castle: the excavation of a crop mark site’ Aerial Archaeology Vol. 2 p. 56-7
  • Webster, J. and P.V., 1978, 'Cardiff Castle' Archaeology in Wales Vol. 18 p. 50
  • Webster, P. and J., 1978, 'Archaeological notes: Cardiff Castle' Morgannwg Vol. 22 p. 88 online copy
  • Webster, P. and J., 1977, 'Archaeological notes: Cardiff Castle' Morgannwg Vol. 21 p. 97-8 online copy
  • Webster, 1977, Medieval Archaeology Vol. 21 p. 240-1 download copy
  • Webster, P. and J., 1976, 'Archaeological notes: Cardiff Castle' Morgannwg Vol. 20 p. 73-4 online copy
  • Webster, J. and P.V., 1976, 'Cardiff Castle' Archaeology in Wales Vol. 16 p. 33-4
  • Webster, J. and P., 1975, 'Archaeological notes: Cardiff Castle' Morgannwg Vol. 19 p. 75-6 online copy [online copy > http://welshjournals.llgc.org.uk/browse/viewobject/llgc-id:1171843/article/000042265]
  • Hogg, A.H.A. and King, D.J.C., 1967, 'Masonry castles in Wales and the Marches: a list' Archaeologia Cambrensis Vol. 116 p. 71-132
  • Hogg, A.H.A. and King, D.J.C., 1963, 'Early castles in Wales and the Marches: a preliminary list' Archaeologia Cambrensis Vol. 112 p. 77-124
  • Brown, R, Allen, 1959, 'A List of Castles, 1154–1216' English Historical Review Vol. 74 p. 249-280 (Reprinted in Brown, R. Allen, 1989, Castles, conquest and charters: collected papers (Woodbridge: Boydell Press) p. 90-121) view online copy (subscription required)
  • 1933, Archaeologia Cambrensis Vol. 88 p. 368-73
  • 1913, Archaeologia Cambrensis Vol. 68 p. 133-43
  • Ward and Corbett, 1911, The Archaeological Journal Vol. 68 p. 369-70
  • Ward, J., 1908, 'Roman Cardiff' Archaeologia Cambrensis Vol. 63 p. 29-64 (mostly on Roman fort) online copy
  • 1908, 'Proceedings of the annual summer meeting at Cardiff' Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society Vol. 31 p. 25-8 online copy
  • Ward, J., 1901, 'Cardiff castle, its Roman origin' Archaeologia Vol. 57 p. 335-52
  • 1901, Archaeologia Cambrensis Vol. 56 p. 70-2 online copy
  • Corbett, 1893, Journal of the British Archaeological Association Vol. 49 p. 308 (plan) online copy
  • Clark, G.T., 1890, 'Cardiff Castle' Archaeologia Cambrensis Vol. 45 p. 283-92 online copy
  • Clark, G.T., 1862, 'Some Account of Cardiff Castle' Archaeologia Cambrensis Vol. 17 p. 249-71 online copy

Guide Books

  • Williams, M., 2008, The essential Cardiff Castle (London: Scala)
  • Banks, K., 1984, The Norman keep, Cardiff Castle (Cardiff: Cardiff City Council)
  • Anon, n.d (?1983)., Cardiff Castle (Cardiff: Cardiff City Council)
  • Grant, 1923, Cardiff Castle, its History and Architecture (Cardiff)

Primary Sources

  • 'Annales de Margam' in Luard, H.R (ed), 1857, Annales Monastici (Rolls Series) Vol. 1 p. 4, 15 online copy
  • Giraldus Cambrensis, c.1188, Journey Through Wales view online transcription
  • Giraldus Cambrensis, c.1183, Description of Wales view online transcription
  • The Great Roll of the Pipe for the thirty-first year of the reign of King Henry II A.D. 1184-1185 (Pipe Roll Society 34)
  • The Great Roll of the Pipe for the thirty-fourth year of the reign of King Henry II A.D. 1187-1188 (Pipe Roll Society 38)
  • The Great Roll of the Pipe for the ninth year of the reign of King John : Michaelmas 1207 (Pipe Roll Society 60)
  • William ab Ithel (ed), 1860, (ed), Brut y Tywysogion Jesus MS 111 (Red Book of Hergest) 1233 online copy [Scan of original manuscript > http://image.ox.ac.uk/show?collection=jesus&manuscript=ms111]
  • Williams ab Ithel, John, (ed), 1860, Annales Cambriae (444 – 1288) 1233 online copy
  • Jones, T. (ed), 1948, 'Cronica de Wallia and other documents' Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies Vol. 12 p. 27-44
  • Hardy, T.D. (ed), 1835, Rotuli litterarm patentium in Turri londinensi asservati (Record Commission) p. 79b online copy
  • Maxwell Lyte, H.C. (ed), 1903, Calendar of Patent Rolls Henry III (1225-32) Vol. 2 p. 500-1 online copy
  • 1906, Calendar of Patent Rolls Henry III (1232-47) Vol. 3 p. 53 online copy
  • Clark, G.T., 1910, Cartae et alia munimenta quae ad dominium de Glamorgancia pertinent Vol. 2 p. 551 (1248 Kidis) online copy
  • Maxwell Lyte, H.C. (ed), 1895, Calendar of Close Rolls Edward II (1318-1323) Vol. 3 p. 542 view online copy (subscription required)
  • Haydon, F.S. (ed), 1860, Eulogium Historiarum sive Temporis (Rolls Series 9) Vol. 3 p. 401
  • Rickard, John, 2002, The Castle Community. The Personnel of English and Welsh Castles, 1272-1422 (Boydell Press) (lists sources for 1272-1422) p. 204-5

Other

  • Hart, Rowena, 2009, Disabled Access, Cardiff Castle, Cardiff, Archaeological watching brief (GGAT 2009/008) online copy
  • Dunning, Rob, 2008, External Signs and Viewing Platform, Cardiff Castle, Cardiff, Archaeological excavation and watching brief (GGAT 2008/040) online copy