Hawarden Castle

Has been described as a Certain Timber Castle (Motte), and also as a Certain Masonry Castle

There are major building remains

NameHawarden Castle
Alternative NamesPenharddlech; Penarlag; Hawurd; Harden
Historic CountryFlintshire
Modern AuthorityFlintshire
1974 AuthorityClwyd
CommunityHawarden

The ruins of an elaborate masonry castle constructed from c.1297 are sited upon what are presumed to be the earthworks of an earlier 'motte and bailey' castle. The castle was partially demolished c.1660. The surviving remains include up to two lines of additional ramparts enclosing the castle, the total perimeter being c.150-170m in diameter. The site is greatly affected by landscaping associated with Hawarden Castle Park. (Coflein)

Motte and bailey castle underlying later stone castle but of same plan. Consists of steep sided conical mound 21m in diam with bailey to NE. Built by Hugh Earl of Chester. Rebuilt in stone late C13. (Clwyd Powys Archaeological Trust HER)

Ancient site upon which Hugh Lupus, Earl of Chester established a Norman castle. The present motte and irregular bailey presumably relate to this. Entirely destroyed by Llewelyn the Last in 1265, the present buildings constitute its successor. Late C13, and probably with some input from the royal engineer, Master James of St. George, given its affinities with contemporary Royal works in N Wales. Attacked by Llewelyn's brother Dafydd in 1282 during the latter's rising. The castle saw much action in the first Civil War and was slighted by order of parliament in 1647. Consolidated, and no doubt "improved" as a ruin by the Glynnes, the owners from 1653. Restoration was carried out by George Shaw in the 1860s and by R.S. Weir in the 1920s. Description: The castle is of conventional motte and bailey type, though extensive additional earthworks to the E and SE were probably erected during the Civil War. A circular, late C13 2-storey keep surmounts the motte with an octagonal first-floor hall plus chapel and inner chamber. A curtain wall survives in part, especially to the N/E where it ascends the motte to join the keep. To the E the bailey. Remains of first-floor hall, with 2 large cusped lancets and some corbelling

Other associated ruins, those at the base of the motte apparently later. To the N the remains of a sophisticated postern (?) gate with deep drawbridge pit. (Listed Building Report)

This site is a scheduled monument protected by law

This is a Grade 1 listed building protected by law

Historic Wales CADW listed database record number
The National Monument Record (Coflein) number(s)
County Historic Environment Record
OS Map Grid ReferenceSJ319653
Latitude53.180850982666
Longitude-3.01984000205994
Eastings331900
Northings365300
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Most of the sites or buildings recorded in this web site are NOT open to the public and permission to visit a site must always be sought from the landowner or tenant.

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Books

  • Davis, Paul, R., 2011, The Forgotten Castles of Wales (Almeley: Logaston Press) p. 174
  • Goodall, John, 2011, The English Castle 1066-1650 (Yale University Press) p. 215, 222
  • Goodall, J.A.A., 2009, 'The Baronial Castles of the Welsh Conquest' in Willams, D. and Kenyon, J. (eds), The Impact of the Edwardian Castles in Wales (Oxbow) p. 155-65
  • Morgan, Gerald, 2008, Castles in Wales: A Handbook (Talybont: Y Lolfa Cyf.) p. 126-8
  • Gravett, Christopher, 2007, The Castles of Edward I in Wales 1277-1307 (Osprey Fortress series 64)
  • Pettifer, Adrian, 2000, Welsh Castles, A Guide by Counties (Boydell Press) p. 75-6
  • Reid, Alan, 1998, Castles of Wales (John Jones Publishing) p. 91
  • Salter, Mike, 1997, The Castles of North Wales (Malvern) p. 71-3
  • Burnham, H., 1995, A Guide to Ancient and Historic Wales: Clwyd and Powys (Cadw, London)
  • Taylor, A.J., 1986, The Welsh Castles of Edward I (Hambledon Press) p. 37-8
  • Hubbard, E., 1986, The Buildings of Wales: Clwyd (Yale University Press) p. 363-4
  • King, D.J.C., 1983, Castellarium Anglicanum (London: Kraus)
  • Fry, P.S., 1980, Castles of the British Isles (David and Charles) p. 358
  • Renn, D.F., 1973 (2 edn.), Norman Castles of Britain (London: John Baker) p. 201
  • Colvin, H.M., Brown, R.Allen and Taylor, A.J., 1963, The history of the King's Works, Vol. 1: the Middle Ages (London) p. 329-30
  • Neaverson, E., 1947, Mediaeval Castles in North Wales: A study of Sites, Water Supply, and Building Stones (London) p. 25-6
  • RCAHMW, 1912, An inventory of the Ancient Monuments of Flintshire (HMSO) p. 35-7 no. 108 online copy
  • Clark, G.T., 1884, Mediaeval Military Architecture in England  (Wyman and Sons) Vol. 2 p. 88-99 online copy
  • Timbs, J. and Gunn, A., 1872, Abbeys, Castles and Ancient Halls of England and Wales Vol. 3 (London) p. 418-20 online copy
  • Willett, R., 1922, A memoir of Hawarden (Chester)
  • Lewis, Samual, 1849, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales online copy
  • King, Edward, 1804, Munimenta antiqua or Observations on antient castles (W.Bulmer and Co) Vol. 3 p. 125 online copy
  • Grose, Francis, 1785, The Antiquities of England and Wales (London) Vol. 7 p. 29-32 online copy
  • Pennant, T. (Rhys, John, ed.), 1883 (orig pub 1784), Tours in Wales Vol. 1 p. 118-131 online copy
  • Buck, Samuel and Nathenial, 1774, Buck’s Antiquities (London) Vol. 2 p. 392

Antiquarian

Journals

  • John Kenyon, Chris Jones-Jenkins and Neil Guy, 2015-16, 'The Castle Studies Group Conference 'Castles of North-East Wales' Castle Studies Group Journal Vol. 29 p. 10-38
  • Williams, R., 2012, ‘The old Hawarden Castle’ Buckley Vol. 36 p. 3-6
  • Mesqui, Jean, Renn, Derek and Smals Laurens, 2008, ''The Portcullis in Medieval Great Towers: An Impression' Château Gaillard Vol. 23 p. 289-95
  • Hogg, A.H.A. and King, D.J.C., 1967, 'Masonry castles in Wales and the Marches: a list' Archaeologia Cambrensis Vol. 116 p. 71-132
  • King, D.J.C., 1966, ‘Hawarden Castle’ The 113th Annual Meeting in Chester, 1966, CAA p. 28-9
  • Hogg, A.H.A. and King, D.J.C., 1963, 'Early castles in Wales and the Marches: a preliminary list' Archaeologia Cambrensis Vol. 112 p. 77-124
  • Brown, R, Allen, 1959, 'A List of Castles, 1154–1216' English Historical Review Vol. 74 p. 249-280 (Reprinted in Brown, R. Allen, 1989, Castles, conquest and charters: collected papers (Woodbridge: Boydell Press) p. 90-121) view online copy (subscription required)
  • 1922, Flintshire Historical Society Journal Vol. 9 p. 54-6 online copy
  • Bell-Jones, 1921, Archaeologica Cambrensis Vol. 76 p. 355-8
  • Clark, G.T., 1889, 'Contribution towards a complete list of moated mounds or burhs' The Archaeological Journal Vol. 46 p. 197-217 esp. 201 (listed as in Cheshire) online copy
  • Clark, G.T., 1870, 'Hawarden Castle, Flintshire' The Archaeological Journal Vol. 27 p. 239-54 (reprinted in Medieval Military Architecture)
  • Hartshorne, C.H., 1858, 'De Monalto; with Notices and a Plan of Hawarden Castle, Flintshire' The Archaeological Journal Vol. 15 p. 249-52 online copy

Guide Books

  • Gladstone, E.W., 2003, Hawarden Old Castle (Privately published)
  • Gladstone, E.W., 1974, Hawarden Old Castle (Privately published)
  • Gladstone, W.H., 1890, The Hawarden Visitors' Hand-Book Revised Edition http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/20012]
  • Clark, G.T., 1870, Hawarden Castle http://archive.org/stream/hawardencastle00clar#page/n4/mode/1up

Primary Sources

  • Smith, S. (ed.), 1941, The Great Roll of the Pipe for the seventh year of the reign of King John, Michaelmas 1205 (Pipe Roll 51) (Pipe Roll Society Publications 57)
  • Edwards, J.G. (ed), 1940, Littere Wallie, preserved in Liber A (Cardiff) p. 2 (1267)
  • Brut y Tywysogion 1282 (Several transcriptions and translations exist the best being Jones, T., 1952, Brut Y Twysogion (University of Wales, History and Law series 11)–based on the Peniarth MS 20 version. There is a flawed translation Williams ab Ithel, John, 1860, Brut Y Twysogion or The Chronicle of the Princes (Rolls Series) online copy)
  • Hog, T. (ed), 1845, F. Nicholai Triveti de ordine frat. praedicatorum Annales sex regum Angliae, qui a comitibus andegavensibus originem traxerunt (English Historical Society) p. 301-2 online copy
  • Rickard, John, 2002, The Castle Community. The Personnel of English and Welsh Castles, 1272-1422 (Boydell Press) (lists sources for 1272-1422) p. 199-200
  • Phillips, J.R., 1874, Memoirs of the Civil War in Wales and the Marches (London) Vol. 1 p. 180, 185-7, 290 online copy Vol. 2 p. 242, 246 [online copy > http://archive.org/stream/memoirsofcivilwa02philiala#page/242/mode/1up]