Clarendon Palace

Has been described as a Certain Palace (Royal)

There are masonry footings remains

NameClarendon Palace
Alternative NamesClarindon
Historic CountryWiltshire
Modern AuthorityWiltshire
1974 AuthorityWiltshire
Civil ParishClarendon Park

Medieval manor and hunting lodge which was established during C12 as a Royal Palace. It was expanded during early C13 and comprised an irregular layout of buildings arranged around a courtyard. Rebuilding took place during mid C15but it became a lesser royal palace by late C16. Clarendon Palace was described as a lodge in 1574. Excavations in 1821 located the layout of the palace, further excavations have taken place during C20. Field investigations in 1973 found the palace buildings to extend over an area roughly 240m northeast-southwest by 80m, situated within a sub-rectangular enclosure formed either by a wall, or a bank which survives to a height of 1.2m. Both a bank and surmounting wall remain on the southeast side. Many of the buildings survive as footings exposed during excavation, but the east end of the Great Hall remains to a height of 5m. (PastScape)

Clarendon was established as a royal palace during the 12th century with Henry II primarily responsible for its transition from a hunting lodge. New additions, of a mid-12th century date, include the king's quarters, 'La Roche' wine cellar, All Saints Chapel and the Great Hall. By the early 13th century further extensive expansion took place instigated by Henry III. This included the construction of King's Chapel and the Antioch chamber under the supervision of Elias de Dereham (1236) who was also responsible for the construction of Salisbury Cathedral. Stained glass windows in the chapel closely resembled those found at Salisbury Cathedral. The layout of the palace was not formal, with unaligned buildings situated around courtyards. Many of the buildings were constructed of dressed flint; Chilmark and Caen stone were also used. The external wall were often limewashed. The interior decor was often lavish with plaster tinted blue by the inclusion of lapis lazuli thought to come from Afganistan, and the use of Purbeck marble for pillars

Several tile pavements were used; one circular pavement present in King's Chapel used tiles from one of the Clarendon kilns. A survey of 1272-3 showed the palace to be in a state of disrepair and included fire damage, a series of repairs was carried out. Another survey dated 1315, showed the buildings again to be in a bad state of repair. The last phase of major rebuilding took place in the mid-15th century, but was followed by a decline by the number of royal visits that were made to Clarendon; the last recorded visit took place in 1574 by Queen Elizabeth I, when all that appeared to remain of the palace was a 'lodge'. It is during this period that Clarendon changed from a palace to a place of a more local significance, with the prominence of the prison, first recorded in the 13th century, the most obvious manifestation of this. A survey of 1650 refers to the old Gatehouse as the Kings Manor. Archaeological evidence supports continued occupation within the area of the western entrance continuing into the 17th century. Excavations carried out in 1821 revealed the general outline for the palace but damaged any straitigraphical relationships between the walls and floor levels. Excavations also took place 1933-39, 1957, and 1964-5. These located Roman pottery, coins and a fragment of box tile. These are probably residual, representing Roman occupation within the vicinity. Earlier Medieval structures were noted but not fully investigated, these were present within the area of the 12th century Great Hall and Great Courtyard. There is documentary evidence of an 'Old Hall' situated south of the site; the structure situated within the correct siting is known to be 13th century but has not yet been investigated to see whether it incorporates or overlays earlier elements. The ceramic assemblage is mid-late 13th century, perhaps continuing into the 14th century. Almost all are products of the Laverstock Kilns. These kilns developed as a result of the demands of the palace. The absence of later wares when there is documentary evidence of occupation 1300-1500 may be explained by the removal of debris which took place, during one of the periods of rebuilding, or that the main areas of later activities has not yet been investigated. (PastScape–ref. James 1988 and 1990).

This site is a scheduled monument protected by law

This is a Grade 2 listed building protected by law

Historic England Scheduled Monument Number
Historic England Listed Building number(s)
Images Of England
Historic England (PastScape) Defra or Monument number(s)
County Historic Environment Record
OS Map Grid ReferenceSU181302
Latitude51.070671081543
Longitude-1.74182999134064
Eastings418190
Northings130230
HyperLink HyperLink HyperLink
Copyright Howard Noyce All Rights Reserved
Copyright Howard Noyce All Rights Reserved

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Books

  • < >Beaumont-James, Tom, and Gerrard, Christopher, 2007, Clarendon: Landscape of Kings (Windgather Press) < >
  • Richardson, A., 2007, ''The King's Chief Delights': A Landscape Approach to the Royal Parks of Post-Conquest England' in Liddiard, R. (ed) The Medieval Park new perspectives (Windgather Press) p. 27-48
  • < >Richardson, A., 2005, The Medieval forest, park and palace of Clarendon, Wiltshire c.1200-c.1650: Reconstructing an actual, conceptual and documented Wiltshire landscape (Oxford: Archaeopress, British Archaeological Reports British Series 387) < >
  • Keevill, Graham D., 2000, Medieval Palaces, An Archaeology (Stroud; Tempus) p. 11, 14, 23, 25, 27, 29, 32-3, 51, 67, 85-6, 96, 105-7, 113-4, 140, 144-5, 149, 157, 160-2, 165-6
  • James, Thomas Beaumont, 1990, The Palaces of Medieval England (London)
  • James, Thomas Beaumont, and Robinson, A.M., 1988, Clarendon Palace: the History and Archaeology of a Medieval Palace and Hunting Lodge near Salisbury, Wiltshire (Society of Antiquaries/ Thames and Hudson)
  • Colvin, H.M., Ransome, D.R. and Summerson, John, 1982, The history of the King's Works, Vol. 4: 1485-1660 (part 2) (London) p. 66
  • Colvin, H.M., Brown, R.Allen and Taylor, A.J., 1963, The history of the King's Works Vol. 2: the Middle Ages (London: HMSO) p. 910-918 (plan)
  • Pevsner, N., 1963, Buildings of England: Wiltshire (London, Penguin) p. 162
  • Mackenzie, J.D., 1896, Castles of England; their story and structure (New York: Macmillan) Vol. 1 p. 222 online copy
  • Turner, T.H. and Parker, J.H., 1859, Some account of Domestic Architecture in England (Oxford) Vol. 3 Part 2 p. 335 online copy

Antiquarian

  • Camden, Wm, 1607, Britannia hypertext critical edition by Dana F. Sutton (2004)
  • Chandler, John, 1993, John Leland's Itinerary: travels in Tudor England  (Sutton Publishing) p. 498-9
  • Toulmin-Smith, Lucy (ed), 1907, The itinerary of John Leland in or about the years 1535-1543 (London: Bell and Sons) Vol. 1 p. 268, 269 online copy

Journals

  • Creighton, O.H., 2010, 'Room with a View: Framing Castles Landscapes' Château Gaillard Vol. 24 p. 37-49 (slight)
  • Bradley, J and Gaimster, M. (eds), 2004, 'Medieval Britain and Ireland in 2003' Medieval Archaeology Vol. 48 p. 295-6 download copy
  • Richardson, Amanda, 2003, 'Corridors of power: a case study in access analysis from medieval England' Antiquity Vol. 77 p. 373-84
  • Eames, E., 1965, Journal of the British Archaeological Association Vol. 28 p. 57-85
  • anon, 1962, 'Clarendon Palace' Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine Vol. 58 p. 247
  • Borenius, J. and Charlton, J., 1936, 'Clarendon Palace: an interim report' Antiquaries Journal Vol. 16 p. 55-84 (plan)
  • Wood, M., 1935, 'Norman Domestic Architecture' The Archaeological Journal Vol. 92 p. 167-242 esp. 207 online copy
  • anon, 1893-5, 'Clarendon Palace' Wiltshire Notes and Queries Vol. 1 p. 206-11
  • Phillipps, Thomas, 1834, 'Survey of the Manor and Forest of Clarendon, Wiltshire, in 1272' Archaeologia Vol. 25 p. 151-3 online copy (slight report of excavation finds)

Primary Sources

  • Maxwell Lyte, H.C. (ed), 1901, Calendar of Patent Rolls Henry III (1216-25) Vol. 1 p. 124-5 online copy
  • Stamp, A.E., 1937, Calendar of the liberate rolls preserved in the Public record office Henry III (1245-1251) Vol. 3 (HMSO) passim online copy
  • C145/31(2) (Survey of 1273) The National Archives reference (calendared in Maxwell Lyte, H.C., 1916, Calendar of Inquisitions Miscellaneous (Chancery), preserved in the Public Record Office (H.M.S.O.) Vol. 1 No. 942) (also in [Phillipps 1834 p. 152-3 > http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=V0BGAQAAIAAJ&pg=PA151#v=onepage&q&f=false])
  • C145/75(20) (Survey of 1315) The National Archives reference (calendared in Maxwell Lyte, H.C., 1916, Calendar of Inquisitions Miscellaneous (Chancery), preserved in the Public Record Office (H.M.S.O.) Vol. 2 p. 50 No. 209 [online copy > https://archive.org/stream/calendarofinqu02grea#page/50/mode/1up])
  • C145/106(8) (Survey of 1327) The National Archives reference (calendared in Maxwell Lyte, H.C., 1916, Calendar of Inquisitions Miscellaneous (Chancery), preserved in the Public Record Office (H.M.S.O.) Vol. 2 p. 242 No. 975 [online copy > https://archive.org/stream/calendarofinqu02grea#page/242/mode/1up])
  • C47/3/48(2) (Survey of 4 Edward I) The National Archives reference
  • E317 Wilts/26-34 (Survey of Commonwealth) The National Archives reference

Other

  • < >Richardson, Amanda, 2003, The forest, park and palace of Clarendon, c.1200-c.1650: reconstructing an actual, conceptual and documented Wiltshire landscape (PhD thesis University of Southampton) (download via EThOS) < >