Hartshill Castle

Has been described as a Certain Timber Castle (Motte), and also as a Certain Fortified Manor House

There are masonry footings remains

NameHartshill Castle
Alternative NamesHardreshull
Historic CountryWarwickshire
Modern AuthorityWarwickshire
1974 AuthorityWarwickshire
Civil ParishHartshill

Stands in a commanding position. Fortified in the time of Henry I (1100-35) as a motte and bailey castle (PRN 241), possibly by Hugh de Hardreshull. Only the earthworks remain of the early castle together with practically the whole of the E wall and a portion of the S wall of a contemporary stone-built chapel (PRN 242). The castle was rebuilt possibly about 1330 by John de Hardreshull. Much of the boundary wall remains. The position of the cross-shaped loopholes in this wall indicate that the keep was situated well away from it. The boundary wall excluded the motte but embraced the early stone chapel. The pools on the E may have been made at this time or in the 16th century when Michael and Edmund Parker leased the castle with its 'castellated manor house'. (Warwickshire HER)

The motte and bailey castle is located on a relatively broad north-west/south-east ridge which falls away steeply on the southern side to a pond and stream that flows northwards. Prior to land infilling the land was similarly deeply incised on the northern side with a pond at the upper reaches of a stream (OS 1st edn map - 1885). The mound is not quite circular, measuring some 50m by 45m at the base, and tapering to 10m diameter at the top. It reaches a height of c 9m and is surrounded by a ditch with a partial counterscarp bank. The ditch, at its maximum, measures 5m wide and 1.5m deep. The top of the mound is relatively flat with two small trenches, one cut into the centre and the other on the northern side. This latter trench is 0.2m deep. Slight scarring is evident mid-way down the slope in the west. On the southern side, opposite the manor house, is a linear depression, up to 0.1m deep, extending from the top of the mound and fading out towards the bottom. This feature marks the probable line of former steps. The counterscarp bank is degraded in places and appears to have been re-modelled on at least one occasion

On the southern side the bank has been breached by a modern footpath that leads along the perimeter of the Hayes. A deep cutting is evident on the inner face of the bank in the west . This cutting, together with two almost parallel trenches extending from the outer face of the bank towards the valley, are possibly diorite or manganese test pits. The south-western side of the bank is relatively straight and appears constrained by the edge of the deep valley; nevertheless, another slight bank along the top of the bank indicates that it was re-modelled, possibly with walling or a quickset hedge, at some time. A scarp defining the position of the bailey extends to the south of the motte and for much of its course is overlain by a curtain wall. The survey suggests that there may have been two baileys. An inner, smaller enclosure covers an area of c 40m by 60m and extends from the motte ditch in the south before curving north-east at where it is overlain by a wall that is probably associated with the later manor house. In the north-east its course is again evident as a steep-sided scarp and narrow ditch leading back to the motte ditch. The posited outer bailey is less certain, and is less evident as an earthwork. It continues the line of the first bailey for some 50m and then cuts dramatically across the spur to the north-eastern side where there is a prominent scarp along its course. Overlying the bailey is a polygonal curtain wall which is constructed of a local rubble quartzite stone with sandstone quoins and thought to date to the 14th century. Much of the wall, some 1.2m thick, appears quite unstable and has collapsed in a number of places; however, at its maximum height, in the west, it measures 3m. Both internally and externally, stone rubble is present along much of the course of the north and east walls. A number of apertures, or cross-shaped loopholes, are intermittently placed in the wall. To the south of the curtain wall, at (d), is a pond with the main entrance to the site situated just to the north. Extending from the entrance is an embanked track which, further south-east, survives as a hollow way for c 25m. Terracing along the south-western side of the curtain wall, which descends to another pond, may be the remains of a garden. The pond is dammed at the north-western end, but water permeates to a small stream that flows through the woodland. Extending from the southern side of the manor house in a south-westerly direction are two scarps, the upper scarp measures 15m and turns through ninety degrees where the outline of a stone wall survives. Further south, this stone wall survives as a low, linear mound. The scarp and stone wall thus form an enclosure c.55 by 35m. Within this enclosure are further slight rectilinear earthworks which probably represent former gardens. (PastScape ref.English Heritage: Earthwork survey - Hartshill Hayes Jan 1999)

Gatehouse Comments

Recent excavations (2000) were apparently done without archaeological supervision!

- Philip Davis

This site is a scheduled monument protected by law

This is a Grade 2 listed building protected by law

Historic England Scheduled Monument Number
Historic England Listed Building number(s)
Images Of England
Historic England (PastScape) Defra or Monument number(s)
County Historic Environment Record
OS Map Grid ReferenceSP325943
Latitude52.5458106994629
Longitude-1.52144002914429
Eastings432540
Northings294330
HyperLink HyperLink HyperLink
Copyright Nick Meredith All Rights Reserved
Copyright Nick Meredith All Rights Reserved
Copyright Nick Meredith All Rights Reserved
Copyright Nick Meredith All Rights Reserved
Copyright Nick Meredith All Rights Reserved
Copyright Nick Meredith All Rights Reserved
Copyright Nick Meredith All Rights Reserved
Copyright Nick Meredith All Rights Reserved
Copyright Nick Meredith All Rights Reserved
Copyright Nick Meredith All Rights Reserved
Copyright Nick Meredith All Rights Reserved

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Books

  • Pettifer, A., 1995, English Castles, A guide by counties (Woodbridge: Boydell Press) p. 257
  • Salter, Mike, 1993, Midlands Castles (Birmingham) p. 49
  • Salter, Mike, 1992, Castles and Moated Mansions of Warwickshire (Malvern: Folly Publications) p. 29-30
  • King, D.J.C., 1983, Castellarium Anglicanum (London: Kraus) Vol. 2 p. 482
  • Fry, P.S., 1980, Castles of the British Isles (David and Charles) p. 239
  • Renn, D.F., 1973 (2 edn.), Norman Castles of Britain (London: John Baker) p. 200
  • Pevsner, Nikolaus and Wedgwood, Alexandra, 1966, Buildings of England: Warwickshire p. 307
  • Salzman, L.F. (ed), 1947, VCH Warwickshire Vol. 4 p. 131 online transcription
  • Harvey, Alfred, 1911, Castles and Walled Towns of England (London: Methuen and Co)
  • Mackenzie, J.D., 1896, Castles of England; their story and structure (New York: Macmillan) Vol. 1 p. 350-1 online copy

Journals

  • Wilson, M., 2006, 'Demystifying Hartshill Castle: recent conservation and research' West Midlands Archaeology Vol. 49 p. 2-7
  • Wilson, M., 2006, 'Hartshill Castle and an issue of trust' The Archaeologist Vol. 60 p. 24-5
  • Chatwin, P.B., 1947-8, 'Castles in Warwickshire' Transactions of the Birmingham and Warwickshire Archaeological Society Vol. 67 p. 8-9
  • Chatwin, P.B., 1928, Transactions of the Birmingham and Warwickshire Archaeological Society Vol. 53 p. 206-10
  • Clark, G.T., 1889, 'Contribution towards a complete list of moated mounds or burhs' The Archaeological Journal Vol. 46 p. 197-217 esp. 213 online copy

Guide Books

  • Lapworth, J., nd, Hartshill Castle (typed essay by owner) online copy

Other

  • Historic England, 2015, Heritage at Risk West Midlands Register 2015 (London: Historic England) p. 42 online copy
  • English Heritage, 2014, Heritage at Risk Register 2014 West Midlands (London: English Heritage) p. 42 online copy
  • English Heritage, 2013, Heritage at Risk Register 2013 West Midlands (London: English Heritage) p. 42 online copy
  • English Heritage, 2012, Heritage at Risk Register 2012 West Midlands (London: English Heritage) p. 53 online copy
  • English Heritage, 2011, Heritage at Risk Register 2011 West Midlands (London: English Heritage) p. 53 online copy
  • English Heritage, 2010, Heritage at Risk Register 2010 West Midlands (London: English Heritage) p. 53 online copy
  • English Heritage, 2009, Heritage at Risk Register 2009 West Midlands (London: English Heritage) p. 61 online copy
  • Baker, H.D., 1987, Warwickshire Monument Evaluation and Presentation Project
  • Brown, G., 1997, A field investigation and survey at Hartshill Hayes