Wakefield Lowe Hill
Has been described as a Certain Timber Castle (Motte), and also as a Certain Siege Work
There are earthwork remains
|Name||Wakefield Lowe Hill
|Alternative Names||Clarence Park; Law Hill; Low Hill; Lawe Hill; Thornes
|1974 Authority||West Yorkshire
Remains of motte and bailey castle situated in the middle of Thornes Park. Possibly an adulterine fortification constructed by the 3rd Earl de Warenne during the Civil War of 1138-1149. Comprises motte, inner bailey, outer bailey and an apparent third bailey to the extreme east, which was probably in fact a platform constructed to accomodate an octagonal Victorian bandstand, the foundations of which are still visible.
Trial trenching carried out by the Wakefield Historical Society in 1953 recovered only a small amount of pottery, mostly C12 in date, in the fill of the ditch surrounding the motte. Excavation of the portion of the bailey nearest the mound revealed a hearth area underneath the Bailey Bank, associated with more C12 pottery, an iron spur and a decorative iron and bronze stud. No evidence was found of stonework or timberwork, but excavation was not extensive and the area of the motte top had been badly eroded. The limited number of Norman/medieval artefacts recovered was taken by the Site Director to indicate only a limited period of occupation after the Castle's construction in the mid 12th century. The impression gained from these cuttings was that the few finds represented rubbish left by the builders of the castle, not by any subsequent occupier. However, the castles of Wakefield and Sandal are referred to in a royal edict of 1324. A tradition recorded by Leland held that the castle was destroyed by 'violence of wind' - possibly the great gale of 1330?
The distinction between the inner and outer bailey has been lost on the most recent OS map. (West Yorkshire Archaeology Advisory Service)
Lowe Hill motte and bailey castle is located in Thornes Park on the hill top overlooking the River Calder and the Thornes area of Wakefield. The monument includes the motte and two baileys
An apparent third bailey, situated on the north-east side, does not at present form part of the scheduling as current thought is that it is a platform built to accommodate a Victorian bandstand, the foundations of which can still be seen, not a bailey. The motte, on which would have been built a timber keep, stands c.9m high, has a base diameter of c.25m and is surrounded by an infilled ditch visible as a shallow depression c.5m wide. A scarp on the west and north sides of the motte continues eastward to create the north side of the inner bailey which is a roughly square enclosure measuring c.40m across. Low banks, c.1m high and 3m wide, follow the edge of the scarp and would have formerly been the site of a timber palisade. The smaller outer bailey lies at a slightly lower level to the north-east and is also enclosed by a scarp and bank. Like the inner bailey, the level area inside would have been the site of ancillary and garrison buildings and would have contained corralling for horses. The remains of these structures will survive well and extensively throughout the monument as disturbance to the site has been limited to a small scale excavation carried out in 1953, when a hearth and small quantities of metalwork and twelfth century pottery were found. The early history of the site is unclear as little documentary evidence survives. One theory, based on the date of the pottery found so far, is that it was an adulterine castle constructed by the third Earl Warenne during the war of 1138-49 between Stephen and Mathilda. Licence to build fortifications could be granted only by the king and an adulterine castle was one built without his authority during times of civil strife. On the opposite side of the River Calder, approximately one mile to the south-east, is Sandal Castle, first mentioned in c.1240. Although the exact relationship between the two is not yet known, it is likely, since both are mentioned in a royal edict of 1324, that together they controlled movement along the river. Traditionally, Lowe Hill castle is believed to have been destroyed by the great gale of 1330. (Scheduling Report)
A quarter of a mile withowte Wakefeld apperith an hille of erth caste up, wher sum say that one of Erles Warines began to build, and as fast as he buildid violence of winde defacid, the work. This is like a fable. Sum say that it was nothing but a wind mille hille. The place is now caullid Lohille. (Leland)
This site is a scheduled monument protected by law
Historic England (PastScape) Defra or Monument number(s)
County Historic Environment Record
|OS Map Grid Reference||SE326196