Waynefletes Tower, Esher

Has been described as a Possible Masonry Castle, and also as a Possible Palace (Bishop)

There are masonry ruins/remnants remains

NameWaynefletes Tower, Esher
Alternative NamesWaynfletes Tower; Wolseys Tower; Esher Palace; Esher Place; Esher Episcopi
Historic CountrySurrey
Modern AuthoritySurrey
1974 AuthoritySurrey
Civil ParishEsher

Wayneflete's Tower is the only surviving remains of the late 15th century Bishops palace and later Royal Palace of Esher. The site has been occupied since the 11th century and Bishop Wayneflete's palace was built on the site of an earlier medieval manor house. The palace was built around 1465-80, and was taken over by Cardinal Wolsey in 1529, who carried out various alterations. After his downfall, Henry VIII took possession of the palace in 1530 and it became one of his royal residences. The palace was used by Henry VIII and by Edward VI but during the reign of Queen Mary it was returned to the see of Winchester. Various alterations were subsequently made to the building, however in 1678, the whole building, apart from the tower, was demolished. The tower was the palace's gatehouse and is the only early structure that has survived. In 1729 William Kent built, for the statesman Henry Pelham, a new mansion on the site which incorporated the tower. Today (2009) the tower is a privately owned house.

Wayneflete's Tower or gatehouse is three stories high with four-storeyed turrets. It is built of brick with stone dressings to the battlements and window surrounds. The tower contained a central vaulted hall with a heated room on the south side and a stair turret and a possible porter's lodge on the north. The central hall probably rose up through the first and second floors of the central and south bays of the building. Recent excavations by The Time Team have identified the layout of Wayneflete's original palace which included a curtain wall, a great hall, associated buildings such as kitchens and a large castle-like keep with octagonal corner turrets.

The 1730s alterations to the surviving gatehouse by William Kent included the addition of three-storey wings either side of the gatehouse, however these were demolished in the early 19th century. His internal alterations in the gatehouse are early examples of the Rococo-Gothic style

(PastScape)

Former gatehouse to Esher Place. 1475-80, probably by John Cowper for Bishop Waynefleet of Winchester, altered by William Kent for Henry Pelham 1729. Red and blue brick in diaper pattern. Square. 3 storeys with 4 storied polygonal angle turrets, stone string courses between each, on dentilled band to second floor and on arcaded corbel band to turrets. Stone dressings to battlements and window surrounds, 2 quatrefoil leaded casements on top stage of angle turrets,designed by Kent who also remodelled the leaded, ogee arched windows on the lower floors- 3 to each storey. Single, stone ogee arched porch between the turrets with stone crockets to gable and Greek geometric pattern impost blocks to arch-also designed by Kent. C20 panelled door in arched stone surround behind. Interior: Entrance Hall (original gateway) rib-vaulted and stuccoed by Kent, some ceiling and wall decorations survive. Remodelled with some of the earliest examples of Rococo-Gothic. Designs for the work by Kent, dated 1733, survive in R.I.B.A. The now vanished gardens, also designed by Kent, were famous in their day. (Listed Building Report)

Wayneflete's Tower was built circa 1475-80 by Bishop William Waynflete of Winchester as the gatehouse to Esher Palace (Time team date to 1462-72). It is four storied, built of brick and in its general form is similar to a number of contemporary brick gatetowers built by other major religious and aristocratic patrons. It contained a central vaulted hall flanked on its south side by a large heated room entered through a high quality door. On the north side there was a stair turret and a room which probably served as a porter's lodge. At first floor level there may have been a tall hall rising through the first and second floors of the central and south bays of the building. The other major surviving phase of fabric dates from the 1730s and was executed by William Kent for Henry Pelham. Never very defensive but later C18 Gothick alterations make it look even less so. Site of palace of bishops from C13. Early C17 plans show keep-like building (square tower with corner turrets) so possibly site of castle.

Gatehouse Comments

Excavated by Time Team in Sept 2005.

- Philip Davis

Not scheduled

This is a Grade 1 listed building protected by law

Historic England Scheduled Monument Number
Historic England Listed Building number(s)
Images Of England
Historic England (PastScape) Defra or Monument number(s)
County Historic Environment Record
OS Map Grid ReferenceTQ130651
Latitude51.3737411499023
Longitude-0.37678000330925
Eastings513080
Northings165100
HyperLink HyperLink HyperLink
Copyright Richard Croft and licensed for reuse under this Creative Commons license.
Copyright Richard Croft and licensed for reuse under this Creative Commons license.
Copyright Penny Rainbow All Rights Reserved
Copyright Penny Rainbow All Rights Reserved
Copyright Penny Rainbow All Rights Reserved

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Books

  • Goodall, John, 2011, The English Castle 1066-1650 (Yale University Press) p. 389-92
  • Emery, Anthony, 2006, Greater Medieval Houses of England and Wales Vol. 3 Southern England (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) p. 336-7, 430-34
  • Rainbow, Penny, 2006, A Complete History of the Tower of Esher – a William Wayneflete Landmark (Penny Rainbow) Abstract
  • Salter, Mike, 2001, The Castles of Surrey (Malvern: Folly Publications) p. 23
  • Thompson, M.W., 1998, Medieval bishops' houses in England and Wales (Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing) p. 11, 12, 112, 123, 148, 186
  • Thurley, Simon, 1993, The Royal Palaces of Tudor England (Yale University Press) p. 44, 50
  • James, T.B., 1990, The Palaces of Medieval England (London; Seaby) p. 20, 141, 159
  • Colvin, H.M., Ransome, D.R. and Summerson, John, 1982, The history of the King's Works Vol. 4: 1485-1660 (part 2) (London) p. 89-90
  • Pevsner, N. and Nairn, Ian, 1971 (Revised Cherry, Bridget), Buildings of England: Surrey (London, Penguin) p. 222-3
  • Malden, H.E. (ed), 1912, VCH Surrey Vol. 4 p. 399
  • Clinch and Montgomerie, 1911, Malden, H.E. (ed), VCH Surrey Vol. 3 p. 448-9 online transcription
  • Lambert, G., 1884, Esher Place

Journals

  • Harp, P., 2013, ‘Excavation at Wayneflete’s Tower, Esher: 18th century alterations by William Kent’ Surrey Archaeology Collections Vol. 97
  • Thompson, S. and Birbeck, V., 2010, 'Investigations at Wayneflete's Tower, Esher, Surrey' Surrey Archaeological Collections Vol. 95 p. 259-70 Abstract
  • Harp, P., 2007, 'Excavation at Waynefleet Tower' Bulletin of the Surrey Archaeological Society No. 403 p. 2- online copy
  • Turner, D.J., 1975, Surrey Archaeological Society Bulletin Vol. 120 p. 2
  • Thompson, M.W., 1960, 'The Date of 'Fox's Tower,' Farnham Castle, Surrey' Surrey Archaeological Collections Vol. 57 p. 85-92 online copy
  • 1959 May, Country Life p. 1077
  • Floyer, J.K., 1919, Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of London Vol. 32 p. 69-79
  • Floyer, J.K., 1913, 'English Brick Buildings of the Fifteenth Century' The Archaeological Journal Vol. 70 p. 121-32 online copy
  • Nevill, R., 1880, 'Esher Place' Surrey Archaeological Collections Vol. 7 p. 214-21 online copy

Other

  • Time Team (Mike Aston et al), 2006 Feb 12 (1st broadcast), 'The first Tudor palace?' Time Team TV Programme (Time Team, a Videotext/Picture House production for Channel 4) View online
  • < >Wessex Archaeology, 2009, Wayneflete Tower, Esher, Surrey Archaeological Evaluation and Assessment of Results online copy < >
  • Payne, Naomi, 2003, The medieval residences of the bishops of Bath and Wells, and Salisbury (PhD Thesis University of Bristol) Appendix B: List of Medieval Bishop's Palaces in England and Wales (available via EThOS)