Tutbury Castle

Has been described as a Certain Timber Castle (Motte), and also as a Certain Masonry Castle

There are masonry ruins/remnants remains

NameTutbury Castle
Alternative NamesToteberie; Tetbery; castrum Stutesburiae
Historic CountryStaffordshire
Modern AuthorityStaffordshire
1974 AuthorityStaffordshire
Civil ParishTutbury

Tutbury Castle dates back to the late 11th century, possibly, as the element 'Burh' in the place-name suggests, occupying a site fortified by the Saxons. The oldest parts surviving are the 12th century chapel and the early 14th century NE gateway. The rest is 15th century and later. The castle became Crown property in 1399 on the death of John of Gaunt, and Mary Queen of Scots was imprisoned there. At the outset of the Civil War its defences were considerably strengthened, and it was one of the last places in the county held for the Royal cause. When it fell in 1646, it was slighted by the Parliamentarians. (Masefield; Pevsner)

Tutbury Castle was built by 1071 and demolished 1175-6. It was rebuilt in the late 12th century and new work is recorded in the 13th, 14th and 15th centuries. Desultory demolition took place in 1647-48. It was one of the principal castles inherited by Henry IV as Duke of Lancaster. The main gateway had been constructed by Earl Thomas in 1313-4. Extensive works were undertaken by the three Lancastrian kings, the existing ruins being mainly of 15th century date. (HKW)

The existing remains consist of a motte with counterscarp bank to the west, and there are three outer platforms. There are traces of a village enclosure to the south (probably the suggested park pale, SK 22 NW 9). Tutbury was the administrative centre for one of the great estates of the Duchy of Lancaster, and although infrequently used as a residence, was maintained because of the forests, parks and chases which surrounded it. Cracks had appeared in the great tower in 1597, and nothing was spent on its repair, so that it was demolished in 1647-8, leaving only the imposing fragment which still stands. In the reign of Charles I the old Mediaeval range on the south side of the castle was entirely replaced. It was over 100 feet long but has now disappeared

The castle was held by Royalists during the Civil War, Prince Rupert lodging there in 1645 and after the Battle of Naseby. Besieged for three weeks in the Spring of 1646, it surrendered and was rendered untenable. (Palliser; Renn; HKW)

Excavations and geophysical survey until 2006 suggests that there was a second ditch on the south side, so creating a three-tier defensine system. Within the inner bailey has been revealed an extensive collection of buildings of 15th-17th century date. (Hislop, Williams, 2006-7) (PastScape)

Castle ruins. C12 chapel. North-east gateway of early C14, the rest C15 and later. On the south side the present entrance is through the south wall of the former King's Lodging of 1631-5 on the site of the former great hall and solar, of which portions remain. To west the motte is crowned by a folly keep of early C19 known as Julius's tower. To east is the South Tower, actually 2 adjoining towers of circa 1442-50. The curtain wall extends north-east to a small tower and to the North Tower beyond, built circa 1450 and terminating with the North-East Gateway, known as John of Gaunt's Gateway, a fabric on early C14 with C15 towers. In the bailey stand the remains of the Norman chapel. The castle, which for long has been the property of the Duchy of Lancaster, was founded by Henry de Ferrers. Mary Queen of Scots was confined here on several occasions. Crown Property and A.M. (Listed Building Report)

This site is a scheduled monument protected by law

This is a Grade 1 listed building protected by law

Historic England Scheduled Monument Number
Historic England Listed Building number(s)
Images Of England
Historic England (PastScape) Defra or Monument number(s)
County Historic Environment Record
OS Map Grid ReferenceSK209292
Latitude52.859619140625
Longitude-1.69059002399445
Eastings420920
Northings329210
HyperLink HyperLink HyperLink
Photograph by Andrew Herrett. All rights reserved
Photograph by Andrew Herrett. All rights reserved
Photograph by Andrew Herrett. All rights reserved
Photograph by Andrew Herrett. All rights reserved
Photograph by Andrew Herrett. All rights reserved
Photograph by Andrew Herrett. All rights reserved
Photograph by Andrew Herrett. All rights reserved
Photograph by Andrew Herrett. All rights reserved
Photograph by Andrew Herrett. All rights reserved
Photograph by Andrew Herrett. All rights reserved
Photograph by Andrew Herrett. All rights reserved
Photograph by Andrew Herrett. All rights reserved
Photograph by Andrew Herrett. All rights reserved
Photograph by Andrew Herrett. All rights reserved
Photograph by Andrew Herrett. All rights reserved
Photograph by Andrew Herrett. All rights reserved
Photograph by Andrew Herrett. All rights reserved
Photograph by Andrew Herrett. All rights reserved
Photograph by Andrew Herrett. All rights reserved
Photograph by Andrew Herrett. All rights reserved
Photograph by Andrew Herrett. All rights reserved
Photograph by Andrew Herrett. All rights reserved
Photograph by Andrew Herrett. All rights reserved
Photograph by Andrew Herrett. All rights reserved
Photograph by Andrew Herrett. All rights reserved
Photograph by Andrew Herrett. All rights reserved
Photograph by Andrew Herrett. All rights reserved
Photograph by Andrew Herrett. All rights reserved
Photograph by Andrew Herrett. All rights reserved
Photograph by Andrew Herrett. All rights reserved
Photograph by Andrew Herrett. All rights reserved
Photograph by Andrew Herrett. All rights reserved
Photograph by Andrew Herrett. All rights reserved
Photograph by Andrew Herrett. All rights reserved
Photograph by Andrew Herrett. All rights reserved
Photograph by Andrew Herrett. All rights reserved
Photograph by Andrew Herrett. All rights reserved
Photograph by Andrew Herrett. All rights reserved
Photograph by Andrew Herrett. All rights reserved
Photograph by Andrew Herrett. All rights reserved
Photograph by Andrew Herrett. All rights reserved
Photograph by Andrew Herrett. All rights reserved
Photograph by Andrew Herrett. All rights reserved
Photograph by Andrew Herrett. All rights reserved
Photograph by Andrew Herrett. All rights reserved
Photograph by Andrew Herrett. All rights reserved
Photograph by Andrew Herrett. All rights reserved
Photograph by Andrew Herrett. All rights reserved
Photograph by Andrew Herrett. All rights reserved
Photograph by Andrew Herrett. All rights reserved
Photograph by Andrew Herrett. All rights reserved
Photograph by Andrew Herrett. All rights reserved
Photograph by Andrew Herrett. All rights reserved
Photograph by Andrew Herrett. All rights reserved
Photograph by Andrew Herrett. All rights reserved
Copyright Martin Handley All Rights Reserved

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Books

  • < >Hislop, Malcolm, Kincey, Mark and Williams, Gareth, 2011, Tutbury: 'A Castle Firmly Built', Archaeological and Historical Investigations at Tutbury Castle, Staffordshire (Oxford: Archaeopress; BAR British series 546; Birmingham Archaeological Monograph Series 11) < >
  • Goodall, John, 2011, The English Castle 1066-1650 (Yale University Press) passim
  • Purton, P.F., 2009, A History of the Early Medieval Siege c. 450-1220 (Woodbridge: The Boydell Press) p. 276
  • Emery, Anthony, 2000, Greater Medieval Houses of England and Wales Vol. 2 East Anglia, Central England and Wales (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) p. 437-8
  • Salter, Mike, 1997, Castles and Moated Mansions of Staffordshire (Malvern: Folly Publications) p. 56-61
  • Pettifer, A., 1995, English Castles, A guide by counties (Woodbridge: Boydell Press) p. 231
  • Salter, Mike, 1993, Midlands Castles (Birmingham) p. 80-3
  • Smith, Michael E., 1992, Castles and Manor Houses in and around Derbyshire (Derby)
  • Merill, J.N., 1988, Halls and Castles of the Peak District and Derbyshire (Matlock: JNM Publications) p. 59
  • King, D.J.C., 1983, Castellarium Anglicanum (London: Kraus) Vol. 2 p. 451
  • Fry, P.S., 1980, Castles of the British Isles (David and Charles) p. 311
  • Colvin, H.M., Ransome, D.R. and Summerson, John, 1975, The history of the King's Works Vol. 3: 1485-1660 (part 1) (London) p. 295-8
  • Pevsner, N., 1974, Buildings of England: Staffordshire (London, Penguin) p. 287-8
  • Renn, D.F., 1973 (2 edn.), Norman Castles of Britain (London: John Baker) p. 335
  • Colvin, H.M., Brown, R.Allen and Taylor, A.J., 1963, The history of the King's Works Vol. 2: the Middle Ages (London: HMSO) p. 847-9
  • Masefield, C., 1930 (4edn), Staffordshire The Little Guide (Methuen & Co. Ltd) p. 238-42
  • Armitage, Ella, 1912, The Early Norman Castles of the British Isles (London: John Murray) p. 227-8 online copy
  • Harvey, Alfred, 1911, Castles and Walled Towns of England (London: Methuen and Co)
  • Lynam, Charles, 1908, 'Ancient Earthworks' in Page, Wm. (ed), VCH Staffordshire Vol. 1 p. 356-8 (plan) online copy
  • Mackenzie, J.D., 1896, Castles of England; their story and structure (New York: Macmillan) Vol. 1 p. 404-8 online copy
  • Clark, G.T., 1884, Mediaeval Military Architecture in England (Wyman and Sons) Vol. 2 p. 505-8 online copy
  • Timbs, J. and Gunn, A., 1872, Abbeys, Castles and Ancient Halls of England and Wales Vol. 2 (London) p. 534-41 online copy
  • Turner, T.H. and Parker, J.H., 1859, Some account of Domestic Architecture in England (Oxford) Vol. 3 Part 2 p. 235-6 online copy
  • Mosley, 1832, Castle, Priory and Town of Tutbury (London) p. 1-240
  • Mosley, O., 1832, History of the Castle, Priory and Town of Tutbury (London: Simpkin and Marshall) p. 1-240 online copy
  • Shaw, Stebbing, 1798, The History and Antiquities of Staffordshire (J.Nichols abd Son) (Republished 1976 by EP Publishing) Vol. 1 p. 37-49

Antiquarian

Journals

  • Hislop, Malcolm and Williams, Gareth (with Goodwin, John and Kincey, Mark), 2006-7, 'The Tutbury Project: An Interim Report' Castle Studies Group Journal Vol. 20 p. 171-213 (detailed excavation report)
  • Williams, G., 2006, 'Life among the ruins' British Museum Magazine Vol. 54 p. 38-40
  • Williams, G., 2006, 'Tutbury Castle' Current Archaeology Vol. 17.11 p. 586-91
  • Hislop, Malcolm, 2005-6, 'Excavation Reports: Tutbury Castle' Castle Studies Group Bulletin Vol. 19 p. 150-1
  • Hislop, Malcolm, 2005, 'Excavations at Tutbury Castle 2004' Castle Studies Group Bulletin Vol. 18 p. 154-6
  • 2003-4, 'Research Project Tutbury Castle' Castle Studies Group Bulletin Vol. 17 p. 62
  • 2003-4, 'Tutbury Castle' Castle Studies Group Bulletin Vol. 17 p. 36-45
  • Hislop, Malcolm, 2005, 'Tutbury, Tutbury Castle and park pale' West Midlands Archaeology Vol. 48 p. 67-8
  • Harfield, C.G., 1991, 'A Hand-list of Castles Recorded in the Domesday Book' English Historical Review Vol. 106 p. 371-392 view online copy (subscription required)
  • 1989, Medieval Archaeology Vol. 33 p. 207 online copy
  • 1988, West Midlands Archaeology Vol. 31 p. 25-6
  • Thompson, M.W., 1986, 'Associated monasteries and castles in the Middle Ages: a tentative list' The Archaeological Journal Vol. 143 p. 310
  • Palliser, D.M., 1972, 'Staffordshire Castles: A Provisional List' Staffordshire Archaeology Vol. 1 p. 5-8
  • King, D.J.Cathcart, 1972, 'The Field Archaeology of mottes; Eine kurze übersicht' Château Gaillard Vol. 5 p. 101-112
  • Cantor, Leonard, 1966, 'The Medieval Castles of Staffordshire' North Staffordshire Journal of Field Studies Vol. 6 p. 38-46
  • Renn, D.F., 1964, 'The first Norman Castles in England 1051-1071' Château Gaillard Vol. 1 p. 125-132
  • Somerville, Sir Robert, 1963, 'Tutbury Castle' The Archaeological Journal Vol. 120 p. 276-8 online copy
  • Brown, R. Allen, 1959, 'A List of Castles, 1154–1216' English Historical Review Vol. 74 p. 249-280 (Reprinted in Brown, R. Allen, 1989, Castles, conquest and charters: collected papers (Woodbridge: Boydell Press) p. 90-121) view online copy (subscription required)
  • 1955, Bulletin of the British Archaeological Association No. 76 p. 1
  • Lynam, C., 1914, The Archaeological Journal Vol. 71 p. 367-8
  • Armitage, E., 1904, 'The Early Norman Castles of England' English Historical Review Vol. 19 p. 209-245, 417-455 esp. 435-6 online copy
  • Clark, G.T., 1889, 'Contribution towards a complete list of moated mounds or burhs' The Archaeological Journal Vol. 46 p. 197-217 esp. 211 online copy
  • Clark, G.T., 1867, The Builder Vol. 25 p. 185 (reprinted in MMA)

Guide Books

  • 2000, Tutbury Castle Visitors Guide (Tutbury: Tutbury Castle)
  • Somerville, Robert, 1960 (revised, 1964, 1968, 1972, 1978, 1990), Guide to Tutbury Castle (Duchy of Lancaster)

Primary Sources

Other

  • Martin-Bacon, H. and Kincey, M., 2005, Tutbury Castle, Staffordshire: a programme of archaeological work 2005 (Birmingham Archaeology Report 1188.2) view online copy doi:10.5284/1005941
  • Barrett, G. and Hislop, M., 2004, Tutbury Castle, Staffordshire: A programme of archaeological work 2004 (Birmingham Archaeology Report 1188)
  • Welch, C., 1992, Tutbry Castle (unpublished, in Staffordshire SMR)