Bothal Castle

Has been described as a Possible Timber Castle (Other/Unknown), and also as a Possible Masonry Castle

There are masonry ruins/remnants remains

NameBothal Castle
Alternative NamesBothall; Bothale; Bothalle; Bothalla; Bottle; Bottel
Historic CountryNorthumberland
Modern AuthorityNorthumberland
1974 AuthorityNorthumberland
Civil ParishWansbeck

Castle gatehouse, probably c.1343 when Robert Bertram obtained licence to crenellate, restored from ruin 1830-31: adjacent wing c.1858, incorporating some medieval walling, extended and heightened 1909; C19 and early C20 work for Sample family, agents for Duke of Portland. Squared stone with cut dressings; gatehouse roof leaded, Lakeland slates on wing. Gatehouse rectangular in plan, with semi-octagonal turrets flanking entrance on north, and rectangular south-west stair turret.

North elevation: Gatehouse 3 storeys, 3 bays and 2-bay right wing. Moulded pointed central arch with portcullis slot, 1st floor window of 2 trefoiled lights with quatrefoil in spandrel, 3-light square-headed window with transom above. Flanking turrets have 3-light windows, mostly C19, except for single- light loops to ground floor left. Crenellated parapet with gargoyles, important display of contemporary heraldry and 2 worn stone figures (cf. Alnwick Castle). Inner return of each turret shows blocked shoulder-arched door, probably early C19. 2-bay wing to right has 3-light mullioned windows (those on 2nd floor blocked) and crenellated parapet. Left return of gatehouse shows original 2-light 1st-floor window and 3-light transomed window above.

South elevation, to bailey: Gatehouse has double-chamfered arch; original 2-light window above with C15 transomed 2-light window with panel-traceried head on right, brought from Cockle Park Tower in 1830-31 restoration. 3- and 4-light transomed windows to 2nd floor, the latter a late C19 insertion. Small loops to right and in taller projecting stair turret on left. Wing to left 4 storeys, 3 bays; projecting embattled porch with moulded arch, 2- 3- and 4-light mullioned windows, some transomed. 2-storey extension on far left projects beyond line of curtain wall.

Interior: Gate passage has pointed rib vault with 4 murder-holes. Blocked shouldered doorway in each wall, and 2 chamfered loops on west

Ground floor chambers have round-arched rib vaults. 1st floor chamber has segmental ribbed rear arches to original windows, some with window seats. Newel stair capped by ribbed umbrella vault; shoulder-arched doorways. Wing has open- well closed-string stair with turned balusters. 1st floor drawing room has C15 fireplace with embattled lintel, brought from Cockle Park, and oak panelling originally from East-Indiaman ship. One wall, and stair, have plasterwork in imitation of panelling.

Historial Note: The Bertrams were lords from the late C12 until 1406, when the estate passed to the Ogles. Sir John Ogle was besieged here by his elder brother Sir Robert, who took the castle but was later compelled to return it to Sir John. (Listed Building Report)

Built c.1150 AD. A promontory level towards N, but the other three sides are protected by steep slopes to the river & a ravine in the E. There is no sign of a mound & there may never have been one, but only an enclosure protected by stockaded ramparts of earth & a fortified gateway on the N protected by ditch & mound. There is no masonry now visible earlier than C13th (Hunter-Blair 1944).

License for crenallation granted to Sir Robt de Ogle in 1343, heraldic arms carved in the battlements substantiate this date (Hodgson 1832; Hugill 1939).

Bothal Castle which is still known as such was extensively restored about 60 years ago. It is scheduled as an ancient monument and is the property of the Duke of Portland.

Bothal Castle is situated at the end of a natural spur with steep slopes on all sides except the north. The castle consists of the original gatehouse with modern buildings to the west and fragments of the old curtain wall to the south. It is an excellent repair and is used as a private residence and as offices of the agent of the Duke of Portland. Lack of literary evidence and the extensive renovations make it difficult to date this castle. The architectural features of the gatehouse indicate a probable 14th c date. There are no traces of any 12th c building or of the ditch and mound mentioned in Hunter-Blair (F1 EG 18-MAR-54). (PastScape)

Gatehouse Comments

There was almost certainly a C12 manor house here of some size and status but the actual form is unknown and this was, at that time, actually a detached part of the Barony of Bywell rather than being a caput. However the site, a natural knoll, is defensible and it would be entirely likely there were additional earthworks making the site a timber castle. Did Hunter-Blair see something the field investigator EG missed in 1954 or was he somewhat carried away by his expectations of what 'should' have been here?

- Philip Davis

Not scheduled

This is a Grade 1 listed building protected by law

Historic England Scheduled Monument Number
Historic England Listed Building number(s)
Images Of England
Historic England (PastScape) Defra or Monument number(s)
County Historic Environment Record
OS Map Grid ReferenceNZ239864
Latitude55.1724014282227
Longitude-1.62480998039246
Eastings423990
Northings586490
HyperLink HyperLink HyperLink

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Books

  • Goodall, John, 2011, The English Castle 1066-1650 (Yale University Press) p. 267-8
  • Geldard, Ed, 2009, Northumberland Strongholds (London: Frances Lincoln) p. 19
  • Dodds, John F., 1999, Bastions and Belligerents (Newcastle upon Tyne: Keepdate Publishing) p. 216-7
  • Salter, Mike, 1997, The Castles and Tower Houses of Northumberland (Malvern: Folly Publications) p. 29
  • Emery, Anthony, 1996, Greater Medieval Houses of England and Wales Vol. 1 Northern England (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) p. 54-5
  • Pettifer, A., 1995, English Castles, A guide by counties (Woodbridge: Boydell Press) p. 177-8
  • Jackson, M.J.,1992, Castles of Northumbria (Carlisle) p. 34-6
  • Pevsner, N., 1992 (revised by Grundy, John et al), Buildings of England: Northumberland (London, Penguin) p. 199
  • Rowland, T.H., 1987 (reprint1994), Medieval Castles, Towers, Peles and Bastles of Northumberland (Sandhill Press) p. 63-5
  • King, D.J.C., 1983, Castellarium Anglicanum (London: Kraus) Vol. 2 p. 328-9
  • Fry, P.S., 1980, Castles of the British Isles (David and Charles) p. 192-3
  • Graham, Frank, 1976, The Castles of Northumberland (Newcastle-upon-Tyne: Frank Graham) p. 77-81
  • Bibby, R., 1973, Bothal Observed (Frank Graham)
  • Long, B., 1967, Castles of Northumberland (Newcastle-upon-Tyne) p. 72-3
  • Hugill, R.,1939, Borderland Castles and Peles (1970 Reprint by Frank Graham) p. 48-50
  • Harvey, Alfred, 1911, Castles and Walled Towns of England (London: Methuen and Co)
  • Mackenzie, J.D., 1896, Castles of England; their story and structure (New York: Macmillan) Vol. 2 p. 369-70 online copy
  • Tomlinson, W.W., 1897, Comprehensive Guide to Northumberland (Newcastle-upon-Tyne) p. 287-8
  • Bates, C.J., 1891, Border Holds of Northumberland (London and Newcastle: Andrew Reid) p. 9, 283-96 (Also published as the whole of volume 14 (series 2) of Archaeologia Aeliana view online)
  • Turner, T.H. and Parker, J.H., 1859, Some account of Domestic Architecture in England (Oxford) Vol. 3 Part 2 p. 413 online copy
  • Gibson, W., 1848, Northumbrian Castles, Churches and Antiquities part 1 p. 134-6 online copy
  • Hodgson, J., 1832, History of Northumberland (Newcastle-upon-Tyne) Part 2 Vol. 2 p. 151-7 online copy
  • Scott, W., 1814, Border Antiquities of England and Scotland p. 47-50 online copy
  • Hodgson, J. and Laird, F., 1813, Beauties of England and Wales; Northumberland Vol. 12 p. 186-7
  • Buck, Samuel and Nathaniel, 1774, Buck's Antiquities (London) Vol. 1 p. 216
  • Grose, Francis, 1785 (new edn orig 1756), Antiquities of England and Wales (London) Vol. 4 p. 74-9
  • Hutchinson, Wm, 1776, A View of Northumberland (Newcastle) Vol. 2 p. 305-13 online copy

Antiquarian

Journals

  • King, Andy, 2007, 'Fortress and fashion statements: gentry castles in fourteenth-century Northumberland' Journal of Medieval History Vol. 33 p. 377, 390
  • Hunter Blair, C.H., 1944, 'The Early Castles of Northumberland' Archaeologia Aeliana (ser4) Vol. 22 p. 116-70 esp 147-8 (plan)
  • Hunter Blair, C.H., 1925, The Archaeological Journal Vol. 82 p. 238-9 online copy
  • Hunter-Blair, C., 1910, 'The Armorials of Northumberland' Archaeologia Aeliana (ser3) Vol. 6 p. 102, 178 online copy
  • Bates, C.J., 1891, 'Border Holds of Northumberland' Archaeologia Aeliana (ser2) Vol. 14 p. 9, 283-96 online copy
  • Bates, C.J., 1885-6, Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle-upon-Tyne (ser2) Vol. 2 p. 106-11
  • Longstaffe, W.H.D., 1868, 'Bothal' Transactions of the Architectural and Archaeological Society of Durham and Northumberland Vol. 1 p. 118-21 online copy
  • Archaeus, 1822, The Gentleman's Magazine Vol. 92 Part 1 p. 403-4 online copy

Guide Books

  • Anon, n.d., Bothal Castle (Welwyn Electronics)

Primary Sources

  • 1415, Nomina Castrorum et Fortaliciorum infra Comitatum Northumbrie online transcription
  • Maxwell Lyte, H.C. (ed), 1902, Calendar of Patent Rolls Edward III (1343-45) Vol. 6 p. 30 online copy
  • Rickard, John, 2002, The Castle Community. The Personnel of English and Welsh Castles, 1272-1422 (Boydell Press) (lists sources for 1272-1422) p. 353-4