Etal Castle

Has been described as a Certain Masonry Castle, and also as a Certain Tower House

There are masonry ruins/remnants remains

NameEtal Castle
Alternative NamesEchale; Ethalle; Othale; Ethale; Etella; Etall; Etell; Etayle
Historic CountryNorthumberland
Modern AuthorityNorthumberland
1974 AuthorityNorthumberland
Civil ParishFord

Etal Castle is a well-documented example of a tower house, the importance of which lies not only in the good state of preservation of its standing remains but also in the wide range of ancillary buildings which survive as buried features within its barmkin.

The monument known as Etal Castle is a tower house comprising a number of elements which include the tower and its outer enclosure or barmkin, a gatehouse, a corner tower, and the sites of various ancillary buildings which existed within the barmkin, built against the enclosing curtain wall. The earliest element is the tower, built either in the late 13th or early 14th century. This is a rectangular building of four storeys which originally had a projecting forebuilding on the east side. Externally it measures 15m x 10m and has walls over 2m thick. The ground floor consists of a rib-vaulted undercroft or basement which would have been used for storage and the occasional shelter of livestock. It has a single window and was reached via a short passage through the forebuilding which also housed a spiral stair that gave access to the upper floors. The first floor served as the hall or day-room and was comfortably appointed with a large fireplace in the north wall, two recessed windows with window seats, and small vaulted mural chambers constructed in the thickness of the north and south walls. One of these, at the north-east corner of the chamber, housed a garderobe or latrine, and a third window in the south wall has been found to incorporate a 'murder hole': a narrow slanting shaft through which projectiles could be aimed at intruders below. This indicates that there was originally a doorway in the south wall at ground floor level and also that this wall must have been rebuilt at some point as there is now no sign of a door. The second floor was equally comfortable and served as the solar or private chamber

In addition to a fireplace in the south wall, there are three large windows with window seats and three mural chambers, one of which, set above that on the first floor, also contained a garderobe. The third floor is plainer, with no fireplace, but with four windows of which three had seats, and a mural chamber with a projecting garderobe. This floor may have served as a guardroom with access to the fighting platform on the roof of the tower. The roof itself does not survive but it is likely that, in common with other Border towers, it was steeply pitched with stone gables and crenellated parapets. The fragmentary remains of a look-out turret survive above the head of the spiral stair. The tower stands at the west corner of a roughly square platform measuring c.50m along each side. The north-west and south-west sides of the platform are bounded by a scarp which is the result of material being deposited prior to the tower's construction in order to raise the level of the original land surface and so provide a flat area to build on. This area, the barmkin, would originally have been enclosed by a timber palisade. In c.1341, however, Edward III granted the lord of Etal licence to crenellate, that is, fortify his house against the likelihood of invasion from across the border with Scotland. Almost certainly the tower itself was already crenellated at this time, but the grant meant that its owner now had permission to extend the fortification to include the gatehouse, corner tower and curtain wall whose remains now extend round the edges of the barmkin. Documents indicate that the construction of these features took a minimum of 15 years, because a survey of 1355 describes the site as a 'fortalice', a term used for buildings of lesser strength than a castle. The curtain wall appears never to have been particularly strong, being only a little over 1m thick in its one remaining standing section, but the gatehouse is a formidable building comprising a two storey structure with a central rib- vaulted gate passage, flanked to the fore by twin towers which projected above the battlements of the main building and also forward to cover the approach to the gate. The entrance was defended by a portcullis whose housing still survives, and a pair of gates whose hinge pins also remain. Apertures flanking the window above the gate passage suggest that the eastern approach was also defended by a moat and drawbridge because similar apertures, known from other sites, are where the cables attaching the drawbridge to its mechanism passed through the gatehouse walls. Masonry fragments on the gatehouse towers suggest also that there was a barbican over the moat, but neither moat nor barbican remain visible. Above the gate passage were the quarters of the guard commander while on either side, at ground floor level, were rib-vaulted guardrooms, one equipped with a fireplace and the other with a garderobe. A sentry chamber was housed in the south tower while the north tower contained the spiral stair that gave access to the fighting platform. Although the roof and crenellations of the gatehouse no longer survive, the remains of an angle turret can still be seen at the rear of the gatehouse together with the surviving south curtain. Earthworks indicate the positions of the walls around the rest of the barmkin, as do fragments of projecting masonry where the walls joined the tower house, gatehouse and corner tower. Only the ground floor of the corner tower remains standing, surviving as a high, rib-vaulted chamber measuring 7m x 6m and incorporating a wooden loft supported by corbels set into the walls. Originally it had a single window, but this was replaced in modern times by a door giving access to the adjoining cottage which lies outside the area of the scheduling. The walls of the chamber also include two lockers and an embrasure or small recess. Access to the upper storey would have been via an external stair or from the wall walk of the adjoining curtain. In addition to the tower house and defensive buildings, there would have been various ancillary or service buildings within the barmkin, including, for example, stables, kitchens, quarters for servants and guardsmen, offices, a brewhouse, a bakehouse and numerous others. None survive as standing ruins, but their remains exist as buried features and also in traces seen on the inner face of the south curtain wall where their demolition has left scars in the masonry. In addition, partial excavations carried out in the barmkin have located a number of ovens at the north corner, an open drain running north to south across the front of the tower house, another demolished oven, and a flag or cobbled surface which shows evidence of having been repaired or relaid on several occasions. During the medieval period, the manor of Etal was part of the barony of Muschamp and, in 1250, was held by Robert Manners, a tenant of Robert Muschamp. In 1291, the Manners were sufficiently well-respected for the Archbishop of York to have been their house guest, and it would have been shortly after this that work was begun on the tower house by another Robert Manners, the same one who, in 1341, applied to Edward III for licence to crenellate. The fortifications he began were completed by his son John, to the extent that, in a survey of 1368, the site was described as a castle. Throughout the next hundred years, however, Scottish raids and an ongoing and financially ruinous feud between the Manners and another leading local family, the Herons of Ford, conspired to decrease severely the value of the manor so that, by 1438, it was worth only a tenth of what it had been in 1250 and the buildings of the castle were in decay. However, the Robert Manners who became lord of Etal in 1438 was an active Border skirmisher and, by the time of his death in 1461, he had been granted a knighthood and had restored the family fortunes. In 1495, his grandson George Manners inherited the barony of Roos through his mother Eleanor and, from that time, Etal Castle ceased to be the principal residence of the Manners family but was occupied throughout most of the 16th century by their tenants, the Collingwoods, who became constables of the castle. During this time it played a significant role in the Border wars, including being captured in 1513 by the forces of James IV of Scotland and, later that year, being used to store Scottish artillery captured at the Battle of Flodden. In 1525, Thomas Manners became Earl of Rutland and, in 1547, gave the manor of Etal to the Crown in exchange for lands elsewhere. In this way, Etal became a royal castle and its connections with the Manners family ceased. Although it continued to house a garrison, surveys carried out in 1541, 1564 and 1584 show that repairs were not being carried out and that the buildings were considerably decayed. Nevertheless, its importance as a Border stronghold is shown by the fact that the royal commissioners who surveyed it in 1584 urged its repair and recommended that 200 pounds be spent to restore it to its former strength. However, the union of the Scottish and English Crowns in 1603 effectively ended the need for Border castles and the repairs were not carried out. Throughout the succeeding centuries, the Etal estate passed through numerous hands and the castle ceased to be a residence in the 18th century when it was superseded by a house at the other end of the village. In 1908, the Etal and Ford estates were purchased by the first Lord Joicey and remain with the Joicey family. The monument has been in State care since 1975 and the standing remains are a Grade I Listed Building. (Scheduling Report)

Gatehouse, curtain wall and angle tower. Licence to crenellate 1342 for the Manners family. Squared stone.

Gatehouse in south-east corner of the castle. 2 storeys with 3-storey turrets flanking the entrance. Triple-chamfered arch flanked by projecting turrets. Portcullis groove. Above the arch a worn shield with coat of arms and a 2-light Decorated window. On left return a small lancet on ground floor and 2-light Decorated window above. On right return the turret flanking the arch has a garderobe chute. The inner face of the gatehouse has a double-chamfered arch with a large 4-light Decorated window above.

Interior: had a steeply-pitched tunnel vault with chamfered transverse ribs. The springing remains. Tunnel-vaulted guard rooms left and right also with chamfered ribs; that to left has a small fireplace with segmental lintel. They have pointed-arched doorways with continuous chamfers. A mural stair to 1st floor in north wall. Formerly a newel stair above. Windows have broad segmental rere arches with chamfered transverse ribs. On the first floor a large fireplace with segmental lintel, partly blocked.

South curtain wall, c.40 yards long. Stands mainly to the base of parapet level. Rounded corbels project on inner face to support platform.

South-west tower, ground floor only. Small and square. Pointed-arched doorway with continuous chamfer. Interior has plain pointed tunnel Vault. (Listed Building Report)

The monument known as Etal Castle was the second quadrangular castle to be completed in Northumberland, (by 1360) and comprises a tower house, outer enclosure or barmkin, a gatehouse, a corner tower, and the sites of various ancillary buildings which existed within the barmkin, built against the enclosing curtain wall. The earliest element is the tower, built by 1355. This is a rectangular building of four storeys. Externally it measures 15 metres x 10 metres and has walls 2 metres thick. Circa 1341 Edward III granted the lord of Etal licence to crenellate. Almost certainly the tower itself was already crenellated at this time, but the grant meant that its owner now had permission to extend the fortification to include the gatehouse, corner tower and curtain wall whose remains now extend around the edges of the barmkin. Documents indicate that the construction of these features took a minimum of 15 years. The curtain wall appears never to have been particularly strong, being only a little over 1 metre thick in its one remaining standing section, but the gatehouse is a formidable building comprising a two story structure with a central rib-vaulted gate passage, flanked to the fore by twin towers which projected above the battlements of the main building and also forward to cover to approach to the gate. Only the ground floor of the corner tower remains standing, surviving as a high, rib-vaulted chamber measuring 7 metres x 6 metres and incorporating a wooden loft supported by corbels set into the walls. In addition to the tower house and defensive buildings, there would have been various ancillary or service buildings within the barmkin, including, for example, stables, kitchens, quarters for servants and guardsmen, offices, a brewhouse, a bakehouse and numerous others. None survive as standing ruins, but their remains exist as buried features. In 1513 the castle was temporarily captured by the Scots. The site is in the care of English Heritage. (PastScape)

This site is a scheduled monument protected by law

This is a Grade 1 listed building protected by law

Historic England Scheduled Monument Number
Historic England Listed Building number(s)
Images Of England
Historic England (PastScape) Defra or Monument number(s)
County Historic Environment Record
OS Map Grid ReferenceNT925393
Latitude55.6473197937012
Longitude-2.12080001831055
Eastings392530
Northings639310
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Copyright Ryan Davison All Rights Reserved
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Copyright Ryan Davison All Rights Reserved
Copyright Ryan Davison All Rights Reserved
Copyright Ryan Davison All Rights Reserved
Copyright Ryan Davison All Rights Reserved
Photo by Philip Davis All Rights Reserved
Photo by Philip Davis All Rights Reserved
Photo by Philip Davis All Rights Reserved
Photo by Philip Davis All Rights Reserved
Photo by Philip Davis All Rights Reserved
Photo by Philip Davis All Rights Reserved
Photo by Philip Davis All Rights Reserved
Photo by Philip Davis All Rights Reserved
Photo by Philip Davis All Rights Reserved
Photo by Philip Davis All Rights Reserved
Photo by Philip Davis All Rights Reserved
Photo by Philip Davis All Rights Reserved
Photo by Philip Davis All Rights Reserved
Photo by Philip Davis All Rights Reserved
Photo by Philip Davis All Rights Reserved
Photo by Philip Davis All Rights Reserved

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Books

  • Goodall, John, 2011, The English Castle 1066-1650 (Yale University Press) p. 263, 407
  • Geldard, Ed, 2009, Northumberland Strongholds (London: Frances Lincoln) p. 74
  • Dodds, John F., 1999, Bastions and Belligerents (Newcastle upon Tyne: Keepdate Publishing) p. 87-9
  • Salter, Mike, 1997, The Castles and Tower Houses of Northumberland (Malvern: Folly Publications) p. 52-3
  • Emery, Anthony, 1996, Greater Medieval Houses of England and Wales Vol. 1 Northern England (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) p. 91-2, 159
  • Pettifer, A., 1995, English Castles, A guide by counties (Woodbridge: Boydell Press) p. 184
  • Graham, Frank, 1993, Northumberian Castles Aln, Tweed and Till (Butler Publishing) p. 17-20
  • Jackson, M.J.,1992, Castles of Northumbria (Carlisle) p. 63-4 (plan)
  • Pevsner, N. (revised by John Grundy et al), 1992, Buildings of England: Northumberland (London, Penguin) p. 273-4
  • Rowland, T.H., 1987 (reprint1994), Medieval Castles, Towers, Peles and Bastles of Northumberland (Sandhill Press) p. 10, 11, 19, 20
  • King, D.J.C., 1983, Castellarium Anglicanum (London: Kraus) Vol. 2 p. 333
  • Fry, P.S., 1980, Castles of the British Isles (David and Charles) p. 228
  • Graham, Frank, 1976, The Castles of Northumberland (Newcastle-upon-Tyne: Frank Graham) p. 152-5
  • Hedley, W. Percy, 1968-70, Northumberland Families Vol. 2 p. 44, 246
  • Long, B., 1967, Castles of Northumberland (Newcastle-upon-Tyne) p. 100-1
  • Hugill, R.,1939, Borderland Castles and Peles (1970 Reprint by Frank Graham) p. 101-3
  • < >Vickers, Kenneth H. (ed), 1922, Northumberland County History (Newcastle-upon-Tyne) Vol. 11 p. 460-71 online copy < >
  • Harvey, Alfred, 1911, Castles and Walled Towns of England (London: Methuen and Co)
  • Tomlinson, W.W., 1897, Comprehensive Guide to Northumberland (Newcastle-upon-Tyne) p. 523-4
  • Mackenzie, J.D., 1896, Castles of England; their story and structure (New York: Macmillan) Vol. 2 p. 387 online copy
  • Bates, C.J., 1891, Border Holds of Northumberland (London and Newcastle: Andrew Reid) p. 9, 14, 23, 38, 73 (Also published as the whole of volume 14 (series 2) of Archaeologia Aeliana view online)
  • Turner, T.H. and Parker, J.H., 1859, Some account of Domestic Architecture in England (Oxford) Vol. 3 Part 2 p. 413 online copy
  • Hutchinson, Wm, 1776, A View of Northumberland (Newcastle) Vol. 2 p. 21 online copy

Antiquarian

  • Camden, Wm, 1607, Britannia hypertext critical edition by Dana F. Sutton (2004)
  • Chandler, John, 1993, John Leland's Itinerary: travels in Tudor England (Sutton Publishing) p. 343-4
  • Toulmin-Smith, Lucy (ed), 1910, The itinerary of John Leland in or about the years 1535-1543 (London: Bell and Sons) Vol. 5 p. 64, 66 online copy

Journals

  • King, Andy, 2007, 'Fortress and fashion statements: gentry castles in fourteenth-century Northumberland' Journal of Medieval History Vol. 33 p. 377, 378-9
  • Miket, R., 2004, 'The Medieval Bridge at Etal Castle' Archaeology in Northumberland Vol. 14 p. 4-5
  • Harbottle, Barbara and Ellison, Margaret, 2001, 'An Excavation at Etal Castle, Northumberland, in 1978' Archaeologia Aeliana (ser5) Vol. 29 p. 235-52
  • Webster, L.E. and Cherry, J., 1979, 'Medieval Britain in 1978' Medieval Archaeology Vol. 23 p. 262 download copy
  • 1928, 'Reports of meetings for 1928' History of the Berwickshire Naturalist Club Vol. 26 p. 308-9 (only plans from N.C.H.) online copy
  • Hodgson, J.C., 1916, 'List of Ruined Towers, Chapels, etc., in Northumberland; compiled about 1715 by John Warburton, Somerset Herald, aided by John Horsley' Archaeologia Aeliana (ser3) Vol. 13 p. 8 abridged transcription
  • Bates, C.J., 1891, 'Border Holds of Northumberland' Archaeologia Aeliana (ser2) Vol. 14 p. 9, 14, 23, 38, 73 online copy
  • Bates, C.J., 1887-8, Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle-upon-Tyne (ser2) Vol. 3 p. 350-1
  • 1882-4, Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle-upon-Tyne (ser2) Vol. 1 p. 147-8

Guide Books

  • Nelson, Ian S., 1998, Etal Castle (London: English Heritage)
  • Nelson, Ian S., 1994 (3edn), Etal Castle (Berwick: How and Blackhall) (1st printed 1975)

Primary Sources

  • 1584, Report of the Commissioners on the Borders (1584) under Lord Hunsdon; largely the work of Christopher Dacre. Online transcription
  • 1541, View of the Castles, Towers, Barmekyns and Fortresses of the Frontier of the East and Middle Marches Survey of the East and Middle Marches
  • Brewer, J.S. (ed), 1867, Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, of the Reign of Henry VIII Vol. 3 p. 852 No. 1986 online copy
  • 1509, Holdis and Towneshyppes too lay in Garnysons of horsmen Survey of Tevedale
  • 1415, Nomina Castrorum et Fortaliciorum infra Comitatum Northumbrie online transcription
  • Maxwell Lyte, H.C. (ed), 1900, Calendar of Patent Rolls Edward III (1340-43) Vol. 5 p. 179 online copy
  • Rickard, John, 2002, The Castle Community. The Personnel of English and Welsh Castles, 1272-1422 (Boydell Press) (lists sources for 1272-1422) p. 358-9
  • SP15/28/95 (Survey of 1584) The National Archives reference (in [Bates 1891 p. 73 > http://archive.org/stream/archaeologiaael04unkngoog#page/n113/mode/1up])

Other

  • Linford, P., 2000, Etal Castle, Etal, Northumberland, Report on Geophysical Survey, October 1988 (Ancient Monuments Laboratory report 31/2000) online copy