Newcastle-upon-Tyne Town Wall

Has been described as a Certain Urban Defence

There are major building remains

NameNewcastle-upon-Tyne Town Wall
Alternative NamesEver Tower; Morden Tower; Heber Tower; Wall Knoll Tower; Durham Tower; Corner Tower; Gunner Tower; Austin Tower; Carliol Tower; Denton Tower; Fickett Tower; Monboucher Tower; Pink Tower; Stank Tower; Water Tower; West Spittal Tower; White Friar Tower; New Gate; Pandon Gate; Pilgrim Gate; Sand Gate; West Gate; Close Gate
Historic CountryNorthumberland
Modern AuthorityNewcastle-upon-Tyne
1974 AuthorityTyne and Wear
Civil ParishNewcastle-upon-Tyne

Newcastle was first granted permission to build a town wall in 1265. It enclosed the Roman and medieval core of the town and served to form its protection throughout the medieval and post-medieval periods. Building of the wall began on the north side of the town and continued around the eastern and western sides simultaneously. During its construction, the planned line of the walls was changed; on the west side, where it had been heading towards the castle, the walls turn abruptly south towards the river, and on the east side, they make an eastwards extension in order to enclose the suburb of Pandon, granted to Newcastle upon Tyne in 1298. The curtain wall is of squared and coursed sandstone blocks, although the ashlar varies considerably in character and quality. Where excavation has taken place the wall is seen to have been constructed in a narrow foundation slot, straight onto the ground surface or on a broad raft of sandstone blocks. Above the foundation base there is a double chamfered plinth which in some places is stepped down in order to accommodate a change in the gradient. The wall also displays great variety in thickness and height; the height range from the top of the footings to the wall walk of all the upstanding sections of the curtain wall is from 4.4m to 6.6m. The thickness of the wall immediately above the double chamfered plinth ranges from 1.98m to 3.3m. The curtain wall was surmounted by a parapet walkway, and where it survives it varies in height from 1.53m to 1.68m above the top of the wall walk. The wall contained 17 interval towers which normally projected forwards from the line of the wall and about 40 intermediate turrets, normally flush with the outer face of the curtain wall but overhanging the internal face on a series of corbels. Gateways were built at Newgate, Westgate, Closegate, Sandgate, Pandongate and Pilgrimgate, each defended by a pair of gatehouses

A lesser gateway at Sallyport and two posterns, Blackfriars and Whitefriars, were also built. The wall was strengthened by an external ditch up to 20m wide and 4.5m deep separated from the wall by a berm (a level space between a defensive wall and a ditch in order to defend it). The ditch, known as the King's Dykes was completed in 1316, sometime before completion of the wall. The defences continued to function as the town's main form of defence through to the 19th century. During the 16th and 17th centuries, the towers and some of the gates became the meeting places of a variety of town companies who generally added an upper storey to form a meeting hall. The defences were reinforced during the English Civil War in 1638 when England was threatened by invasion from Scotland. The town was stormed in 1644 by the Scots acting in support of Parliament; the defences were subsequently repaired. In 1745 at the time of the Jacobite uprising the defences were repaired against the rebels which included walling up all of the gateways. The defences were last repaired at the time of the Napoleonic Wars in the early 19th century. Subsequently, when the threat had passed and with the continuing development of Newcastle upon Tyne, their function as a defensive town boundary ceased. The walls were allowed to fall into decay and several sections were levelled in the years following 1823. Newcastle upon Tyne's town defences survive in various states of preservation. Some parts of the curtain wall still stand to full height, and the towers and turrets are also clearly visible. The ditch is also clearly visible for part of the western side as a pronounced earthwork. Other parts of the defences are no longer visible above the present surface of the ground but in these areas, sections of the walls and the ditch survive below ground level as buried features, and sufficient evidence exists for their positions to be accurately identified. Given the role played by the town defences in one of England's major commercial towns and their contribution towards an understanding of medieval and later urban development, all sections of Newcastle's town defences that exhibit significant archaeological remains are considered to be nationally important. The standing remains of the curtain wall between Forth Street and Hanover Street survive well to the height of the parapet walkway. This length of curtain wall is a rare survival, being one of few remaining locations where the curtain wall remains upstanding and highly visible. Taken together with the buried remains of the curtain wall it represents one of the most complete lengths of the circuit. The buried remains of the berm and ditch represent one of few remaining locations where they are thought to survive. The evidence retained by the fabric of the curtain wall for the siege of Newcastle enhances the importance of this section. As a monument which is accessible to the public, this section of Newcastle town defences serves as an important educational and recreational resource which will increase our understanding of how Newcastle's defences developed. The monument is situated on gently sloping ground between Forth Street and Hanover Street and lies parallel to Orchard Street. It includes the upstanding and buried remains of part of the town defences of Newcastle upon Tyne. The section of town defences between Forth Street and Hanover Street represents part of the western re-entrant of the circuit originally constructed between 1311 and 1333 and includes a 122m stretch of curtain wall, a length of berm and infilled and buried ditch. The above ground parts of the curtain wall are a Listed Building Grade I. Further sections of the town defences are the subject of separate schedulings. Newcastle upon Tyne town defences were constructed from the mid-13th century to the middle or late 14th century and enclosed an area of more than 60ha; the riverside lengths of curtain wall were added during the 15th century. The masonry defences were strengthened by a berm and a ditch, except on the south side, where they were bounded by the River Tyne. Gateways were built at the principal points of entry to the town. Internally, a cobbled inter-mural lane followed the line of the defences. The defences were refurbished during the medieval period and were reinforced and repaired several times during the post-medieval period. The curtain wall in this section is largely constructed of coursed, square or rectangular sandstone bonded with mortar with a core of rubble and lime mortar. Where the face of the fabric is best preserved, the medieval masonry is dressed with fine diagonal tooling and some blocks retain mason marks in the form of a simple 'V'-shape. Partial excavation in 1987 showed that the wall has rubble foundations laid within a shallow trench. Above the foundations, the wall has a number of internal offsets and a double chamfer course on its external face. The wall stands to a maximum height of 9.2m including the parapet walkway and parapet; the parapet stands some 1.53m above the level of the walkway and some of the original coping stones are visible. This length of curtain wall was constructed through the precinct of the adjacent Carmelite Friary, in existence until its Dissolution in 1539; excavation revealed that at the time of the wall's construction, this part of the Friary precinct was used as pasture land. Although unconfirmed by analysis of the present wall fabric, the earliest illustrations of this section of the curtain wall show it to contain a tower or two turrets. The excavations identified a thickening and slight offset of the wall footings in two places which it is thought may represent the sites of former wall turrets. Part of a cobbled surface parallel to the inner face of the wall, associated with 14th to late 15th century pottery was uncovered by excavation and interpreted as the remains of the inter-mural lane. A considerable depth of deposits, in some places up to 2m thick, had accumulated against the inner face of the curtain wall. These deposits, largely of ash, animal bone and large pieces of pottery were dated to the early 17th century and interpreted as night soil and domestic refuse dumped in this area from nearby houses. The use of the inter-mural lane for this purpose ceased with the siege of Newcastle in 1644. During the siege on the night of 19th October 1664, this length of curtain wall received two major breaches prior to the storming of the town later the same day. The first, situated at its northern end, was caused by artillery fire and was visible as a rebuilt section of walling some 55m long until the 19th century when a 25m section of this 17th century rebuilding was levelled to provide an access point, although the foundations and lower courses of the wall survive below ground as buried features. The second breach, caused by a mine, is situated at the south end of the wall immediately north of the site of the former White Friar Tower; this breach was repaired and is visible in the wall fabric as a 13m long section of rebuilt masonry. Immediately to the west of the curtain wall, the remains of the berm and town ditch lie below ground as buried features. Partial excavation at the northern end of the berm recovered some finds and features interpreted as evidence of workmen engaged in repairs to the external face of the wall. Beyond the berm to the west lies the infilled and buried town ditch thought to be 11.5m wide. The ditch is thought to have become infilled at a relatively early date in this area as it is not depicted on a plan of 1683 and other documents show that it was being leased from at least 1677. A plan of 1723 shows the area of the town ditch as open ground possibly in use as an orchard, and the area remained undeveloped until the early 19th century. By 1830 the area immediately west of the curtain wall was leased as a series of plots containing a variety of lean to structures; numerous joist holes in the outer face of the town wall show that these structures were placed against the west face of the wall. (Scheduling Report)

Gatehouse Comments

They are several Calendar of Patent Rolls entries regarding the collectors of murage in 1280 which suggest some corruption and which, also, put some murage towards repair of the castle. Another CPR entry in 1280 calls the walls 'new'. The 1327 murage grant (The first calendared in detail) mentions seacoal in a long list of other goods - it is not listed in other towns grants but in 1372 a specific toll just on coal is calendared suggesting that by the late C14 coal was Newcastle's prime export.

- Philip Davis

This site is a scheduled monument protected by law

This is a Grade 1 listed building protected by law

Historic England Scheduled Monument Number
Historic England Listed Building number(s)
Images Of England
Historic England (PastScape) Defra or Monument number(s)
County Historic Environment Record
OS Map Grid ReferenceNZ254641
Latitude54.9717216491699
Longitude-1.62118005752563
Eastings425470
Northings564150
HyperLink HyperLink HyperLink
Photograph by Philip Davis. All rights reserved
Photograph by Philip Davis. All rights reserved
Photograph by Philip Davis. All rights reserved
Photograph by Philip Davis. All rights reserved
Photograph by Philip Davis. All rights reserved
Photograph by Philip Davis. All rights reserved
Photograph by Philip Davis. All rights reserved
Photograph by Philip Davis. All rights reserved
Photograph by Philip Davis. All rights reserved
Photograph by Philip Davis. All rights reserved
Photograph by Philip Davis. All rights reserved
Photograph by Philip Davis. All rights reserved
Photograph by Philip Davis. All rights reserved

Most of the sites or buildings recorded in this web site are NOT open to the public and permission to visit a site must always be sought from the landowner or tenant.

Calculate Print

Books

  • Graves, C.P. and Heslop, D.H., 2013, Newcastle upon Tyne: an archaeological assessment (Oxford: Oxbow Books) Chap 5
  • Salter, Mike, 2013, Medieval Walled Towns (Malvern: Folly Publications) p. 102-5
  • Creighton, O.H. and Higham, R.A., 2005, Medieval Town Walls (Stroud: Tempus) p. 24, 34, 40, 97, 108, 129, 143, 147, 171, 186, 226, 235, 237, 240, 270, 278
  • Pettifer, A., 1995, English Castles, A guide by counties (Woodbridge: Boydell Press) p. 192-3
  • Pevsner, N., 1992 (revised by Grundy, John et al), Buildings of England: Northumberland (London, Penguin)
  • King, D.J.C., 1983, Castellarium Anglicanum (London: Kraus) Vol. 2 p. 362-3
  • Graham, Frank, 1976, The Castles of Northumberland (Newcastle-upon-Tyne: Frank Graham) p. 262-80
  • Barley, M.W., 1975, 'Town Defences in England and Wales after 1066' in Barley (ed) The plans and topography of medieval towns in England and Wales (CBA Research Report 14) p. 57-71 plan p. 64 download/view online
  • Turner, H.L., 1971, Town Defences in England and Wales (London) p. 104-9
  • Hugill, R.,1939, Borderland Castles and Peles (1970 Reprint by Frank Graham) p. 235-40
  • Harvey, Alfred, 1911, Castles and Walled Towns of England (London: Methuen and Co) p. 235-6
  • Mackenzie, E., 1827, Descriptive and Historical Account of the Town and County of Newcastle p. 105-117 online transcription
  • Hutchinson, Wm, 1776, A View of Northumberland (Newcastle) Vol. 2 p. 371-6 online copy
  • Bourne, H., 1736, The history of Newcastle upon Tyne: or, The ancient and present state of that town p. 10-18 online copy

Antiquarian

  • Camden, Wm, 1607, Britannia hypertext critical edition by Dana F. Sutton (2004)
  • Chandler, John, 1993, John Leland's Itinerary: travels in Tudor England (Sutton Publishing) p. 337, 340-1, 345-6
  • Toulmin-Smith, Lucy (ed), 1910, The itinerary of John Leland in or about the years 1535-1543 (London: Bell and Sons) Vol. 5 p. 59-60 online copy
  • Celia Fiennes, 1888, Through England on a Side Saddle in the Time of William and Mary (London: Field and Tuer, The Leadenhall Press) Vision of Britain online transcription

Journals

  • Creighton, Oliver, 2006, ''Castles of Communities': Medieval Town Defences in England; Wales and Gascony' Château Gaillard Vol. 22 p. 75-86
  • Teasdale, J.A., 1999, 'An Archaeological Investigation of the Town Wall between St. Andrew's Street and St. Andrew's Churchyard, Newcastle-upon-Tyne' Archaeologia Aeliana (ser5) Vol. 27 p. 29-43
  • Heslop, D.H., Truman, L. and Vaughan, J.E., 1995, 'Excavation of the Town Wall in the Milk Market, Newcastle-upon-Tyne' Archaeologia Aeliana (ser5) Vol. 23 p. 215-234
  • Nolan, J., 1993, 'The Town Wall, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Excavations at Orchard Street and Croft Street, 1987-89' Archaeologia Aeliana (ser5) Vol. 21 p. 93-149
  • Nolan, J., Fraser, R., Harbottle, B. and Burton, F.C., 1989, 'The medieval town defences of Newcastle-upon-Tyne: excavation and survey 1986–87' Archaeologia Aeliana (ser5) Vol. 17 p. 29–78
  • Nolan, J., 1985, 'A cannon-ball from the town wall, Newcastle-upon-Tyne' Archaeologia Aeliana (ser5) Vol. 13 p. 216, 219
  • Tullett, Edmund, 1979, 'An excavation at the Corner Tower, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 1978' Archaeologia Aeliana (ser5) Vol. 7 p. 179-189
  • Webster, L.E. and Cherry, J., 1979, 'Medieval Britain in 1978' Medieval Archaeology Vol. 23 p. 246, 269 download copy
  • Webster, L.E. and Cherry, J., 1978, 'Medieval Britain in 1977' Medieval Archaeology Vol. 22 p. 169 download copy
  • Cambridge, E. and Daniels, C.M., 1974, 'New light on Sandgate, Newcastle-upon-Tyne' Bulletin CBA Group 3 Vol. 8 p. 8-12
  • Harbottle, B., 1974, 'Excavation and Survey in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 1972-1973' Archaeologia Aeliana (ser5) Vol. 2 p. 57-90
  • Harbottle, R.B. 1969, 'The town wall of Newcastle-upon-Tyne: consolidation and excavation in 1968, with a report by Parsons, J.E. on the objects found' Archaeologia Aeliana (ser4) Vol. 47 p. 71-96, 123-37
  • 1969, Medieval Archaeology Vol. 13 p. 266 online copy
  • (Harbottle), 1965, Medieval Archaeology Vol. 9 p. 196 download copy
  • Hunter Blair, C.H., 1958, 'Wall Knoll, Sallyport or Carpenters' Tower. With appendices by Evetts, L.C. and Halcrow, E.M.' Archaeologia Aeliana (ser4) Vol. 36 p. 61-72
  • Honeyman, 1939, Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle-upon-Tyne (ser4) Vol. 9 p. 37-8
  • Hunter Blair, C.H., 1937, 'The walls of Newcastle upon Tyne, illustrated from drawings by George Bouchier Richardson' Archaeologia Aeliana (ser4) Vol. 14 p. 123-8
  • Brewis, P., 1934, 'The west walls of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Between Durham and Ever Towers' Archaeologia Aeliana (ser4) Vol. 11 p. 1-20
  • 1925, The Archaeological Journal Vol. 82 p. 254-5 online copy
  • Knowles, W.H., 1907, 'Town Wall, Quayside, Newcastle' Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle-upon-Tyne (ser3) Vol. 3 p. 56-8 online copy
  • Knowles, 1905, Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle-upon-Tyne (ser3) Vol. 2 p. 63
  • 1904, Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle-upon-Tyne (ser3) Vol. 1 p. 157-62 online copy
  • Holmes, S., 1896, 'The walls of Newcastle-upon-Tyne' Archaeologia Aeliana (ser2) Vol. 18 p. 1-25, 109-12 online copy
  • Welford, R., 1887, 'The Walls of Newcastle in 1638' Archaeologia Aeliana (ser2) Vol. 12 p. 230-5 online copy
  • Hoopell, R.E., 1886, 'The town wall of Newcastle-upon-Tyne in Pandon Dene' Archaeologia Aeliana (ser2) Vol. 11 p. 236-9 online copy

Guide Books

  • Newcastle City Council, 2002, Around the Town Walls (Newcastle City Council) online copy
  • Graham, F., 1972, The castle and town walls of Newcastle (Northern Historical Booklets 21)
  • Holmes, S., 1896, Town Walls of Newcastle (Newcastle) (reprint of Archaeologia Aeliana article)

Primary Sources

  • Maxwell Lyte, H.C. (ed), 1901, Calendar of Patent Rolls Edward I (1272-81) Vol. 1 p. 373, 377, 378, 388 (regarding the collectors of murage) online copy
  • Maxwell Lyte, H.C. (ed), 1901, Calendar of Patent Rolls Edward I (1272-81) Vol. 1 p. 397 (18 Sept 1280 'Licence for the Friars Preachers of Newcastle-on-Tvne to make a narrow gate through the new wall surrounding the said town') online copy
  • Maxwell Lyte, H.C. (ed), 1891-1916, Calendar of Patent Rolls (1258-1266) p. 415; (1266-1272) p. 667; (1272-1281) p. 229, 374-5; (1281-1291) p. 354, 392; (1292-1301) p. 294, 435; (1301-1307) p. 259; (1307-1313) p. 200, 359; (1313-1317) p. 516; (1321-1324) p. 114; (1327-1330) p. 3-4; (1330-1334) p. 268; (1334-1338) p. 175-6; (1340-1343) p. 271; (1348-1350) p. 127; (1348-1350) p. 556; (1361-1364) p. 272; (1370-1374) p. 154; (1370-1374) p. 326; (1377-1381) p. 169; (1381-1385) p. 485 (murage grants) online copies via University of Iowa LibrariesScala, Gian Tomasso, 1545, Newcastell Plan of Newcastle [British Library online gallery > http://www.bl.uk/onlinegallery/onlineex/unvbrit/n/001cotaugi00002u00004000.html]
  • - < >Also see the Gatehouse murage pages for full details of murage [grants > http://www.gatehouse-gazetteer.info/murage/murindex.html], [petitions > http://www.gatehouse-gazetteer.info/murage/mupindex.html ] and [other such > http://www.gatehouse-gazetteer.info/murage/muaindex.html]. < >

Other

  • English Heritage, 2014, Heritage at Risk Register 2014 North East (London: English Heritage) p. 44 online copy
  • English Heritage, 2013, Heritage at Risk Register 2013 North East (London: English Heritage) p. 47 online copy
  • English Heritage, 2012, Heritage at Risk Register 2012 North East (London: English Heritage) p. 59 online copy