Tower of London

Has been described as a Certain Masonry Castle, and also as a Certain Palace (Royal), and also as a Certain Artillery Fort

There are major building remains

NameTower of London
Alternative NamesWhite Tower; magnae turris Londoniae; Turris Lundoniae
Historic CountryLondon and Middlesex
Modern AuthorityLondon Borough of Tower Hamlets
1974 AuthorityGreater London
Civil ParishStepney

Great C11 tower built within Roman wall and by River Thames. Expanded as castle and palace almost continually since then with significant C13 curtain wall and bailey and other masonry work of many other periods. Legge's Mount and Brass Mount are early artillery bastions.

On capturing London, still enclosed by its Roman walls, William I secured his position by the construction of two major castles. One of them (later known as Baynard's Castle was located in the western part of the city and the other, now known as the Tower of London, was in the south-east corner. The Tower of London takes its name from the White Tower, a keep of distinctive form which served as both a defensible stronghold and a palatial residence. Building was under way by c. 1080, and complete by 1101 when the Tower served as a prison for Ranulf Flambard, Bishop of Durham. The White Tower measures 36m x 32.5m (118 feet x 106 feet 6 inches) and stands 27.5m (90 feet) high with four corner turrets. It is built of Caen stone and the walls were originally whitewashed - hence its name. The entrance on the south side was at first floor level, and was approached by stairs in a forebuilding. The plan is the same on all floors. It is dictated by the presence, on the second floor, of the Chapel of St John with its apsed east end, and a large cross wall which divides each floor into two. To the west of the wall is a large room, to the east a smaller room and the chapel or its crypt or sub-crypt. The present third floor and roof are late medieval additions. William's castle bailey was defended on its south and east sides by the Roman town wall and on the north and west sides by a bank and ditch

In the late 12th century, probably under Richard I, the bailey was extended to the west and a part of the new defences was formed by Bell Tower at the south-west corner and an adjacent stretch of wall to the east. (Parnell)

On the east side stands the royal fortress, of tremendous size and strength, whose walls and floors rise up from the deepest foundations – the mortar being mixed with animal's blood. (William FitzStephen)

This tower is a Citadell, to defend or commaund the Citie: a royall place for assemblies, and treaties. A Prison of estate, for the most daungerous offenders: the onely place of coynage for all England at this time: the armorie for warlike prouision: the Treasurie of the ornaments and Jewels of the crowne, and generall conseruer of the most Recordes of the kings Courts of iustice at Westminster. (Stow)

World Heritage Site 488

Gatehouse Comments

Although within the city walls of London the Tower of London was never administratively within the the city of London but an independent administrative unit in its own right which along with all the land within a bow shot around the castle formed the Liberties of the Tower.

- Philip Davis

This site is a scheduled monument protected by law

This is a Grade 1 listed building protected by law

Historic England Scheduled Monument Number
Historic England Listed Building number(s)
Images Of England
Historic England (PastScape) Defra or Monument number(s)
County Historic Environment Record
OS Map Grid ReferenceTQ336804
Latitude51.5080299377441
Longitude-0.0760599970817566
Eastings533600
Northings180400
HyperLink HyperLink HyperLink
Photograph by Philip Davis. All rights reserved
Photograph by Philip Davis. All rights reserved
Photograph by Philip Davis. All rights reserved
Photograph by Philip Davis. All rights reserved
Photograph by Philip Davis. All rights reserved
Photograph by Philip Davis. All rights reserved
Photograph by Philip Davis. All rights reserved
Photograph by Philip Davis. All rights reserved
Photograph by Philip Davis. All rights reserved
Photograph by Philip Davis. All rights reserved
Photograph by Philip Davis. All rights reserved
Photograph by Philip Davis. All rights reserved
Photograph by Philip Davis. All rights reserved
Photograph by Philip Davis. All rights reserved
Photograph by Philip Davis. All rights reserved
Photograph by Philip Davis. All rights reserved
Photograph by Philip Davis. All rights reserved
Photograph by Philip Davis. All rights reserved
Photograph by Philip Davis. All rights reserved
Photograph by Philip Davis. All rights reserved
Photograph by Philip Davis. All rights reserved
Photograph by Philip Davis. All rights reserved
Photograph by Philip Davis. All rights reserved
Photograph by Philip Davis. All rights reserved
Photograph by Philip Davis. All rights reserved
Photograph by Philip Davis. All rights reserved
Photograph by Philip Davis. All rights reserved
Photograph by Philip Davis. All rights reserved
Photograph by Philip Davis. All rights reserved
Photograph by Philip Davis. All rights reserved

Most of the sites or buildings recorded in this web site are NOT open to the public and permission to visit a site must always be sought from the landowner or tenant.

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Books

  • Dixon, Philip, 2015, 'Steps to Lordship' in T.A. Heslop and Helen E. Lunnon (eds), Norwich Medieval and Early Modern Art, Architecture and Archaeology (The British Archaeological Association Conference Transactions 38) p. 118-134
  • Osbourne, Mike, 2012, Defending London (Stroud: The History Press) passim
  • Jones, N., 2011, Tower: an epic history of the Tower of London (London: Hutchinson)
  • Goodall, John, 2011, The English Castle 1066-1650 (Yale University Press) passim
  • Purton, P.F., 2009, A History of the Early Medieval Siege c. 450-1220 (Woodbridge: The Boydell Press) p. 331
  • < >Impey, Edward (ed), 2008, The White Tower (Yale University Press) < > (major text)
  • Humphrys, Julian, 2006, The private life of palaces: fifteen stories from five amazing palaces (Historic Royal Palaces)
  • Whipp, David, 2006, The Medieval Postern Gate by the Tower of London (Museum of London Archaeology Service Monograph 26)
  • Emery, Anthony, 2006, Greater Medieval Houses of England and Wales Vol. 3 Southern England (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) p. 244-5 (slight)
  • Diehl, D. and Donnelly, M.P., 2005, Tales from the Tower of London (Stroud: Sutton Publishing)
  • Keevill, Graham, 2004, The Tower of London Moat: Archaeological excavations 1995-9 (Oxford Archaeology, Historic Royal Palaces Monograph 1)
  • Salter, Mike, 2002, The Castles of The Thames Valley and The Chilterns (Malvern: Folly Publications) p. 52-61
  • Keay, A., 2001, The Elizabethan Tower of London: The Haiward and Gascoyne plan of 1597 (London)
  • Fernie, E., 2000, 'Castles, Halls, and Chamber Blocks' in The Architecture of Norman England (Oxford University Press) p. 49-88 esp 55-61
  • Lapper, I. and Parnell, G., 2000, Landmarks in History: The Tower of London, a 2000-year History (Oxford)
  • Keevill, Graham D., 2000, Medieval Palaces, An Archaeology (Stroud; Tempus) passim
  • < >Parnell, Geoffrey, 1998, The Tower of London. Past and Present (Stroud) < >
  • Wilson, Derek A., 1998 (new edn. (1st pub. 1978)), The Tower of London, a thousand years (London: Allison and Busby)
  • Pettifer, A., 1995, English Castles, A guide by counties (Woodbridge: Boydell Press) p. 151-4
  • Schofield, J., 1995, Medieval London Houses (Yale University Press) p. 1, 4, 8, 11, 13, 21, 31, 36, 82, 95-6, 97, 101, 112, 135, 149, 150
  • < >Parnell, Geoffrey, 1993, The Tower of London (London: English Heritage) < >
  • Thurley, Simon, 1993, The Royal Palaces of Tudor England (Yale University Press)
  • James, T.B., 1990, The Palaces of Medieval England (London; Seaby)
  • Fry, P.S., 1990, The Tower of London: Cauldron of England's Past (London)
  • Lobel, M.D. (ed), 1989, The City of London from prehistoric times to c.1520 British Atlas of Historic Towns Vol. 3 (Oxford University Press) online copy
  • Brown, R.Allen, 1989, Castles from the Air (Cambridge University Press) p. 150-52
  • Brown, R.Allen, 1989, 'The White Tower of London' in Brown, R.Allen, Castles, conquest and charters: collected papers (Woodbridge: Boydell Press) p. 177–86
  • Brown, R.Allen, 1988, 'The White Tower of London' in B Ford (ed), The Cambridge guide to the arts in Britain. 1. Prehistoric, Roman and early medieval (Cambridge: CUP) p. 254–63
  • Llewellyn, J., 1987, The chapels of the Tower of London: the Chapel Royal of St Peter ad Vincula and the Chapel of St John the Evangelist (London)
  • Drage, C., 1987, 'Urban castles' in Schofield, J. and Leech, R. (eds) Urban Archaeology in Britain (CBA Research Report 61) p. 117-32 online copy
  • King, D.J.C., 1983, Castellarium Anglicanum (London: Kraus) Vol. 1 p. 270-1
  • Parnell, G., 1983, A plan of the Tower of London in 1682 (London: London Topographical Society)
  • Curnow, P.E., 1982, 'Some observations on the planning and construction of the west curtain at the Tower of London' in Melanges d'Archéologie et d'Histoire Médiévales en I'Honneur du Doyen Michel de Boüard (Librairie Droz; Mémoires et documents publiés par la Société de l'Ecole des chartes 27) p. 65-74
  • Colvin, H.M., Ransome, D.R. and Summerson, John, 1982, The history of the King's Works Vol. 4: 1485-1660 (part 2) (London) p. 485-90
  • Fry, P.S., 1980, Castles of the British Isles (David and Charles) p. 309-11
  • Brown, R.Allen, 1978, 'Architectural description' Brown, R.Allen, in J Charlton (ed), The Tower of London: its Buildings and Institutions (HMSO) p. 38-54
  • Curnow, P.E., 1978, 'The Bloody Tower' in J Charlton (ed), The Tower of London: its Buildings and Institutions (HMSO) p. 55-61
  • Brown, R.Allen, 1978, 'Architectural history and development to c 1547' in J Charlton (ed), The Tower of London: its Buildings and Institutions (HMSO) p. 24-37
  • Parnell, G., 1977, 'Tower of London' Archaeological excavations 1976 (HMSO) p. 28
  • Curnow, P.E., 1977, 'The Wakefield Tower, Tower of London' in Apted, M.R. et al (eds), Ancient Monuments and Their Interpretation: Essays Presented to A J Taylor (Phillimore) p. 155-89
  • Colvin, H.M., Ransome, D.R. and Summerson, John, 1975, The history of the King's Works Vol. 3: 1485-1660 (part 1) (London) p. 262-277
  • Renn, D.F., 1973 (2 edn.), Norman Castles of Britain (London: John Baker) p. 326-31
  • Rowse, A.L., 1972, The Tower of London in the History of the Nation (London)
  • Minney, Rubeigh James, 1970, The Tower of London (London: Cassell)
  • Grimes, 1968, The Excavation of Roman and Mediaeval London (London) esp p. 47-91
  • Colvin, H.M., Brown, R.Allen and Taylor, A.J., 1963, The history of the King's Works Vol. 2: the Middle Ages (London: HMSO) p. 706-729 and plate
  • Toy, Sidney, 1953, The Castles of Great Britain (Heinemann) p. 68-70
  • Bell, W.G., 1935, The Tower of London (London: Duckworth)
  • RCHME, 1930, Inventory of Historic Monuments in London Vol. 5: East London (HMSO) p. 74-95, plan, numerous plates online transcription
  • Tout, T.F., 1920, Chapters in the Administrative History of Medieval England Vol. 1 (Manchester)
  • Armitage, Ella, 1912, The Early Norman Castles of the British Isles (London: John Murray) p. 221-6 online copy
  • Hamilton Thompson, A., 1912, Military Architecture in England during the Middle Ages (London) p. 120-4 online copy
  • Clapham, A.W., 1912, 'The Tower of London and its Development' in Some Famous Buildings and their Story (London)
  • Harvey, Alfred, 1911, Castles and Walled Towns of England (London: Methuen and Co)
  • Page, Wm (ed), 1911, 'Ancient earthworks' VCH Middlesex Vol. 2 p. 1-14 online transcription
  • Harper, C.G. 1909, The tower of London: fortress, palace and prison
  • Sands, H., 1908, in Ditchfield, Memorials of Old London Vol. 1 (London) p. 27-65
  • Benham, 1906, Tower of London (London)
  • Leveson-Gower, Ronald Charles Sutherland, Lord, 1901-2, The Tower of London 2 vols.
  • Mackenzie, J.D., 1896, Castles of England; their story and structure (New York: Macmillan) Vol. 1 p. 104-25 online copy
  • Clark, G.T., 1884, Mediaeval Military Architecture in England (Wyman and Sons) Vol. 2 p. 203-72 online copy
  • Thornbury, Walter, 1878, Old and New London (Thornbury and Walford) Vol. 2 p. 60-95 online transcription
  • Timbs, J. and Gunn, A., 1872, Abbeys, Castles and Ancient Halls of England and Wales Vol. 1 (London) p. 15-32 online copy
  • < >Clark, G.T., 1867, 'Some Particulars Concerning the Military Architecture of the Tower of London' in Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, Old London (London) < >
  • Ainsworth, W.H., 1840, The Tower of London (London)
  • Britton, J. and Brayley, E.W., 1830, Memoirs of the Tower of London (London)
  • < >Bayley, J., 1821, The History and Antiquities of the Tower of London (London) < >
  • Buck, Samuel and Nathaniel, 1774, Buck's Antiquities (London) Vol. 1 p. 182-3
  • Grose, Francis, 1785 (new edn orig 1756), Antiquities of England and Wales (London) Vol. 3 p. 140-2 online copy

Antiquarian

  • Stype, John, 1720, A Survey of the Cities of London and Westminster Vol. 1 Bk1 p. 59-119 online copy
  • Speed, John, 1611-12, The Theatre of the Empire of Great Britain online copy [online copy > http://faculty.oxy.edu/horowitz/home/johnspeed/Cities18.htm]
  • Camden, Wm, 1607, Britannia hypertext critical edition by Dana F. Sutton (2004)
  • Kingsford, C.L. (ed), 1908, A Survey of London, by John Stow: Reprinted from the text of 1603 Vol. 1 p. 44- online copy
  • Anthony van den Wyngaerde, c. 1543, Panorama of London online copy
  • Celia Fiennes, 1888, Through England on a Side Saddle in the Time of William and Mary (London: Field and Tuer, The Leadenhall Press) Vision of Britain online transcription

Journals

  • Renn, D.F., (forthcoming), 'Pause and cause: the 'building break' in the White Tower' Transactions of the London & Middlesex Archaeological Society Vol. 65
  • Charles Hollwey, 2015-16, 'From Chilham via Caernarfon to Thornbury: The rise of the polygonal tower' Castle Studies Group Journal Vol. 29 p. 263-85
  • Neil Guy, 2015-16, 'The Portcullis - design and development' Castle Studies Group Journal Vol. 29 p. 132-201
  • Richard Nevell, 2014-15, 'Castles as prisons' Castle Studies Group Journal Vol. 28 p. 203-224
  • Parnell, G., 2013, ‘The Great Hall in the inmost ward, Tower of London’ London Archaeologist Vol 13.8 p. 211-214
  • Guy, Neil, 2011-12, 'The Rise of the Anti-clockwise Newel Stair' Castle Studies Group Journal Vol. 25 p. 113-174 online copy
  • Guy, Neil, et al, 2011-12, 'CSG Annual Conference April 2011' Castle Studies Group Journal Vol. 25 p. 29-54
  • Parnell, G., 2011, ‘Putting the barracks back in the Tower of London’ London Archaeologist Vol. 12:12 p. 325-30
  • Burton, Peter, 2010-11, 'Original castle gates and doors – A Survey' Castle Studies Group Journal Vol. 24 p. 246-59 online copy
  • Parnell, G., 2010, 'Old views shed new light on the Tower of London: the photographic survey of the Tower by Henry Dages and Alfred Harman, 1861' Stereo World Vol. 35.6 p. 16-29
  • Miers, M., 2006, 'The king's bedchamber' Country Life Vol. 200.45 p. 74-77
  • O'Regan, H., Turner, A. and Sabin, R. 'Medieval big cat remains from the Royal Menagerie at the Tower of London' International Journal of Osteoarchaeology Vol. 16 p. 385-94
  • 2004-5, 'Tower of London Moat: New Discoveries' Castle Studies Group Bulletin Vol. 18 p. 81-2 (news report)
  • Ashbee, J., 2004, 'The Tower of London and the Jewish expulsion of 1290' Transactions of the London and Middlesex Archaeological Society Vol. 55 p. 35-7 download copy
  • Marshall. Pamela, 2002, 'The Ceremonial Function of the Donjon in the Twelfth Century' Château Gaillard Vol. 20 p. 141-151
  • Ashbee, Jeremy, 2001-2002, 'The White Tower (as the Normans built it)' Castle Studies Group Newsletter No. 15 p. 21-22 online copy
  • Sanderson, R. and Garner, K., 2001, 'Conservation of Reigate stone at Hampton Court Palace and HM Tower of London' Journal of Architectural Conservation Vol. 7.3 p. 7-23
  • Marshall, Pamela, 1999-2000, 'The White Tower Conference' Castle Studies Group Newsletter No. 13 p. 7-9 online copy
  • Ashbee, J., 1999, 'A Mediaeval Garden at the Tower of London' London Gardener Vol. 5 p. 11-14
  • Quiney, Anthony, 1999, 'Hall or Chamber? That Is the Question. The Use of Rooms in Post-Conquest Houses' Architectural History Vol. 42 p. 24-46
  • Parnell, Geoffrey, 1998, 'Ordnance storehouses at the Tower of London, 1450-1700' Château Gaillard Vol. 18 p. 171-180
  • Parnell, Geoffrey, 1998, 'The White Tower : Tower of London' Country Life Vol. 192:28 p. 86-89
  • Impey, E., 1998, 'The western entrance to the Tower of London, 1240-1241' Transactions of the London and Middlesex Archaeological Society Vol. 48 p. 59-76 download copy
  • Storey, Randall, 1998, 'The Tower of London and the garderobae armorum ' Royal Armouries Yearbook Vol. 3 online copy
  • 1997-98, 'Tower of London' Castle Studies Group Newsletter No. 11 p. 21, 24 online copy
  • Singer, C., 1997, 'The Tower of London and its constables' Family History Monthly Vol. 20 p. 48-57
  • Keevil, G., 1997, 'The Tower of London' Current Archaeology Vol. 154 p. 384-7
  • Hutchinson, M., 1997, 'Edward IV's Bulwark; Excavations at Tower Hill, London, 1985' Transactions of the London and Middlesex Archaeological Society Vol. 47 p. 103-144 download copy
  • Higham, Bob, 1996-97, 'The Tower of London moat' Castle Studies Group Newsletter No. 10 p. 45-6 online copy
  • < >Thurley, Simon, 1995, 'The Royal Lodgings at the Tower of London 1240-1320' Architectural History Vol. 38 p. 36-7 < >
  • Hiller, J. and Keevill, G., 1995, 'Recent archaeological work at the Tower of London' Transactions of the London and Middlesex Archaeological Society Vol. 45 p. 147-81 download copy
  • Carpenter, David, 1994, 'King Henry III and the Tower of London' London Journal Vol. 19 p. 95-107 (Reprinted in Carpenter, D., 1996, The Reign of Henry III (Cambridge))
  • Moore, S., 1994 May, 'Whitewashing the Bloody Tower' The Field p. 81-83
  • Price, C.A., 1993-4, 'Preventative conservation of salt-contaminated masonry in the Wakefield Tower, HM Tower of London' University of London Institute of Archaeology Bulletin Vol. 30 p. 121-33
  • Worsley, Giles, 1993, 'The Tower of London' Country Life Vol. 187:14 p. 48-51
  • Thompson, M.W., 1992 Nov, 'A suggested dual origin for keeps'' Fortress: The castles and fortifications quarterly Vol. 15 p. 3-15
  • Parnell, Geoffrey, 1992, 'The rise and fall of the Tower of London' History Today Vol. 42:3 p. 13-19
  • Tatton-Brown, Tim, 1991, 'Medieval building stone at the Tower of London' London Archaeologist 6.13 p. 361-6 online copy
  • Thompson, M.W., 1986, 'Associated monasteries and castles in the Middle Ages: a tentative list' The Archaeological Journal Vol. 143 p. 319
  • Parnell, G., 1985, 'The Roman and medieval defences and the later development of the inmost ward, Tower of London: excavations 1955–77' Transactions of the London and Middlesex Archaeological Society Vol. 36 p. 1–79 download copy
  • Richardson, Beth, 1984, 'Excavation Round-up 1983' London Archaeologist 4.14 p. 390 online copy
  • Youngs, S.M., Clark, J. and Barry, T.B., 1984, 'Medieval Britain and Ireland in 1983' Medieval Archaeology Vol. 28 p. 233 download copy
  • Parnell, G., 1983, 'A carpenter's mark from the Martin Tower, Tower of London' London Archaeologist 4.11 p. 297–8 online copy
  • Parnell, G., 1983, 'The Re-fortification of the Tower of London 1679-1686' The Antiquaries Journal Vol. 63.2 p. 37-43
  • Parnell, G., 1983, 'Excavations at the Salt Tower, Tower of London, 1976' Transactions of the London and Middlesex Archaeological Society Vol. 34 p. 95–106 download copy
  • Parnell, G., 1983, 'The western defences of the inmost ward, Tower of London' Transactions of the London and Middlesex Archaeological Society Vol. 34 p. 107–50 download copy
  • Parnell, G., 1982, 'The excavation of the Roman city wall at the Tower of London and Tower Hill, 1954–76' Transactions of the London and Middlesex Archaeological Society Vol. 33 p. 85–13 download copy
  • Tomlinson, H., 1982 April, 'Ordnance building at the Tower of London' History Today Vol. 32 p. 43-7
  • Youngs, S.M. and Clark, J., 1982, 'Medieval Britain in 1981' Medieval Archaeology Vol. 26 p. 194 download copy
  • Youngs, S.M. and Clark, J., 1981, 'Medieval Britain in 1980' Medieval Archaeology Vol. 25 p. 201 download copy
  • Kenyon, J.R., 1981 'Early Artillery Fortifications in England and Wales: a Preliminary Survey and Re-appraisal' The Archaeological Journal Vol. 138 p. 220
  • Parnell, G., 1980, 'The Tower of London: the reconstruction of the inmost ward during the reign of Charles II' Transactions of the London and Middlesex Archaeological Society Vol. 31 p. 147-56 download copy
  • Parnell, G., 1979, 'Observations on Tower Green' London Archaeologist 3.12 p. 320-6 online copy
  • Sturdy, D., 1979, 'Nine hundred years of the Tower' London Archaeologist 3.10 p. 270-3 online copy
  • Brown, R.Allen, 1979, 'Some observations on the Tower of London' The Archaeological Journal Vol. 136 p. 99-108 (Reprinted in Brown, R.Allen, 1989, Castles, conquest and charters: collected papers (Woodbridge: Boydell Press) p. 163–76)
  • Cowie, L.W., 1978, 'Kings in the Tower of London' History Today Vol. 28.9 p. 589-96, 629
  • Curnow, P., 1977, 'The Wakefield Tower, Tower of London' Château Gaillard Vol. 8 p. 87-102
  • Parnell, G., 1977 'Tower of London' CBA Calendar of Excavations, summaries 1976 p. 9
  • Parnell, G., 1977, 'Excavations at the Tower of London, 1976/7' London Archaeologist Vol. 3.4 p. 97-9 online copy
  • Curnow, P.E., 1977, 'The Wakefield Tower, Tower of London' Château Gaillard, 8 p. 87-101
  • Sturdy, D., 1976, 'Mid Pleasures and Palaces: Archaeological Work at the Royal Sites of London' London Archaeologist Vol. 2.16 p. 417-22 online copy
  • King, D.J.C. and Alcock, L., 1969, 'Ringworks in England and Wales' Château Gaillard Vol. 3 p. 90-127
  • Davidson, Brian K., 1969, 'Early earthwork castles: a new model' Château Gaillard Vol. 3 p. 37-47
  • Davison, B.K., 1967, 'Three eleventh-century earthworks in England: Their Excavation and Implications' Château Gaillard Vol. 2 p. 39-48 esp. 40-3
  • Hurst, D Gillian, 1964, 'Medieval Britain in 1962 and 1963, II. Post-Conquest' Medieval Archaeology Vol. 8 p. 255-6 download copy
  • Brown, R. Allen, 1959, 'A List of Castles, 1154–1216' English Historical Review Vol. 74 p. 249-280 (Reprinted in Brown, R. Allen, 1989, Castles, conquest and charters: collected papers (Woodbridge: Boydell Press) p. 90-121) view online copy (subscription required)
  • 1958, Medieval Archaeology Vol. 2 p. 201
  • Blackiston, N., 1957, 'The Great Storehouse in the Tower' Architectural Review Vol. 121 p. 453
  • Brown, R. Allen, 1955, 'Royal Castle-building in England 1154-1216' English Historical Review Vol. 70 (Reprinted in Brown, R. Allen, 1989, Castles, conquest and charters: collected papers (Woodbridge: Boydell Press)) p. 19-64
  • Harvey, J.H., 1948, 'The Western Entrance to the Tower' Transactions of the London and Middlesex Archaeological Society Vol. 9.1 p. 20-35 download copy
  • Braun, H. S., 1937, 'London's First Castle' Transactions of the London and Middlesex Archaeological Society Vol. 7 p. 445-51 (on foundation history) download copy
  • Roth, 1934-5, Transactions of the RIBA (ser3) Vol. 42 p. 863-70 (on the White Tower)
  • Sands, H., 1913, 'Extracts from the Documentary History of the Tower of London' The Archaeological Journal Vol. 70 p. 17-32 online copy
  • Sands, H., 1912, 'Extracts from the Documentary History of the Tower of London' The Archaeological Journal Vol. 69 p. 161-72 online copy
  • Peers, C.R., 1912, 'Notes on the Development of the Tower of London' The Archaeological Journal Vol. 69 p. 173-82 online copy
  • Hopwood, 1911, Journal of the British Archaeological Association Vol. 17 p. 171-82
  • Compton, C.H., 1900, 'On the discoveries at the Tower of London in the spring of 1899' Journal of the British Archaeological Association Vol. 6 p. 26-32 online copy
  • Birch, G.H., 1898, 'The Two Chapels in the Tower of London' Transactions of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society Vol. 21 p. 175-89 online copy
  • Compton, 1881, Journal of the British Archaeological Association Vol. 37 p. 279-84
  • Hugo, T., 1860, 'A memoir of the Bell Tower in the Tower of London' Transactions of the London and Middlesex Archaeological Society Vol. 1 p. 211-24 online copy

Guide Books

  • < >Impey, E. and Parnell, G., 2000, The Tower of London: Official Illustrated History (London, Merrell) < >
  • Chamberlin, R., 1989, The Tower of London: an illustrated history (Exeter: Webb & Bower)
  • Mears, K.J.. 1988, The Tower of London: 900 years of English history (Oxford: Phaidon)
  • Hammond, P., 1987, Her Majesty’s royal palace and fortress of the Tower of London (London: DOE)
  • < >Brown, R.Allen and Curnow, P.E.. 1984, Tower of London, Greater London (HMSO) < >
  • Hammond, P., 1981, The Tower of London Young Visitor’s Guide (HMSO)
  • Hammond, P., 1978, Royal Fortress: the Tower of London Through Nine Centuries (HMSO)
  • Hamilton, Hamish, 1978, The Tower, 1078-1978 (D Wilson)
  • Rowse, A.L., 1977, The Tower of London (Joseph)
  • Anon, 1974, The Tower of London (HMSO)
  • Anon, 1961, The Tower of London (HMSO)
  • Anon, 1947, The Tower of London (HMSO)

Primary Sources

  • Hearne, T. (ed), 1720, Textus Roffensis (Oxford) p. 212 online copy (see also Sawyer, Peter, 1962, Early English Manuscripts in Facsimile, vol. XI: Textus Roffensis, Part II (Copenhagen: Rosenkilde and Bagger))
  • Pipe Rolls 1129-30, 1171-2, 1172-8, 1180s, 1190 (see Pipe Roll Society for published references)
  • Stubbs, W. (ed), 1869, Chronica Magistri Rogeri de Houedene (Rolls Series 51) Vol. 3 p. 33
  • William FitzStephen, c. 1180, 'A description of London' translated in Henry Thomas Riley (ed), 1860, Liber Custumarum (Rolls Series 12) Vol. 2 p. 2-15 online copy
  • Stubbs, W. (ed), 1880, The Minor Works comprising the Gesta regum with its continuation, the Actus pontificum, and the Mappa mundi, by Gervase, the Monk of Canterbury (London: Longman Rolls series 73) Vol. 2 p. 426 online copy
  • Rickard, John, 2002, The Castle Community. The Personnel of English and Welsh Castles, 1272-1422 (Boydell Press) (lists sources for 1272-1422) p. 297-304
  • B.M. Harleian MS. 1326, ff. 96-125 (Survey of 1623) British Library collection information

Other

  • Fradley, Michael, 2011, The Old in the New: Urban Castle Imposition in Anglo-Norman England, AD1050-1150 (University of Exeter PhD Thesis) available via EThOS
  • Ryder, Charles, 2011, The spiral stair or vice: Its origins, role and meaning in medieval stone castles (PhD Thesis University of Liverpool) p. 141-47 Download via
  • White, H., 2010, Legge's Mount, The Tower of London, London Scientific Analysis of The Cupels (English Heritage Research Department Report Series No. 57)
  • White, H. and Kearns, T., 2010, Legge's Mount, The Tower of London, London: Scientific Analysis of The Cupels (English Heritage Research Department Report Series No. 76)
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