Kippax Manor Garth Hill

Has been described as a Certain Timber Castle (Ringwork)

There are earthwork remains

NameKippax Manor Garth Hill
Alternative NamesManor Hall Garth; Cheeney Basin; Ilkston; Kypexk
Historic CountryYorkshire
Modern AuthorityLeeds
1974 AuthorityWest Yorkshire
Civil ParishGarforth

Manor Garth Hill is situated on a south facing spur above the village of Kippax. The monument includes the remains of a ringwork and part of the surrounding ditch. On its east side, beneath the Church of St Mary and its churchyard, is the bailey which was formerly attached to the ringwork and would have contained ancillary buildings such as stables and accommodation for servants and men-at-arms. This, however, is not included in the scheduling as both the church and churchyard are in current ecclesiastical use. The ringwork survives as a roughly circular enclosure with an interior diameter of c.25m and an earthwork bank standing to a maximum height c.5m. A platform within the interior has been interpreted as the site of a building known to have existed in the seventeenth century whilst, on the south-east side, is a fragment of walling of a similar date. To the west, partially overlain by the church hall, are the remains of a defensive hornwork while, surrounding the monument, are the buried remains of its ditch. The bank will contain the remains of the medieval timber palisade while the remains of contemporary timber buildings will survive in the interior along with the stone foundations of the post-medieval structures. Kippax was an important centre in the late Anglo-Saxon period and retained this status after the Norman Conquest, becoming an early administrative centre of the honour of Pontefract until succeeded in this role by Barwick in Elmet The ringwork is believed to date to the early post-Conquest period but had been largely superseded by the thirteenth century, for which reason its wooden structures were never rebuilt in stone. Medieval motte surviving as an earthwork is visible as an earthwork on air photographs. A Roman glass bottle was found here in 1865

The motte is from 9 to 15 feet above the ditch and there is still a breastwork of earth containing walling around the top. The motte is 100 feet in diameter. There are remains of a bailey. The earthwork is scheduled. (PastScape)

Kippax: Manor Garth Hill - The motte is rather low varying from nine to fifteen feet above the ditch, but seems to be of its original height, as it still retains a breastwork of earth round the top. There are signs of a wall under this breastwork. The diameter of the top is 100 ft. One ditch has been filled up; there are projections to the west of the hill as though a sort of low and broad terrace had been made there. There are signs that the bailey lay to the east in land now annexed to the churchyard, but its area cannot be determined. The site is not specially defensible, ... Kippax was a demesne manor of Ilbert de Laci at Domesday. In 1258 it was held of the King in chief as a baron (Yorks Inq (Yorks Rec.Ser), i, 63). (PastScape–ref VCH, 1912)

Gatehouse Comments

Ring-motte close to Norman church, clearly original a revetted segmented bank around some building platforms, an extension to the church yard may occupy the bailey, if this castle had one.

- Philip Davis

This site is a scheduled monument protected by law

Not Listed

Historic England (PastScape) Defra or Monument number(s)
County Historic Environment Record
OS Map Grid ReferenceSE417304
Latitude53.7682495117188
Longitude-1.36951005458832
Eastings441700
Northings430400
HyperLink HyperLink HyperLink
Photograph by Philip Davis. All rights reserved
Photograph by Philip Davis. All rights reserved
Photograph by Philip Davis. All rights reserved
Photograph by Philip Davis. All rights reserved
Photograph by Philip Davis. All rights reserved
Photograph by Philip Davis. All rights reserved
Photograph by Philip Davis. All rights reserved
Photo by Philip Davis All Rights Reserved
Photo by Philip Davis All Rights Reserved
Photo by Philip Davis All Rights Reserved
Photo by Philip Davis All Rights Reserved
Photo by Philip Davis All Rights Reserved
Photo by Philip Davis All Rights Reserved
Photo by Philip Davis All Rights Reserved
Photo by Philip Davis All Rights Reserved
Photo by Philip Davis All Rights Reserved
Photo by Philip Davis All Rights Reserved
Photo by Philip Davis All Rights Reserved

Most of the sites or buildings recorded in this web site are NOT open to the public and permission to visit a site must always be sought from the landowner or tenant.

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Books

  • Kippax and District Historical Society, 2007, A History of Kippax (Heritage House Press)
  • Turner, Maurice, 2004, Yorkshire Castles: Exploring Historic Yorkshire (Otley: Westbury Publishing) p. 96, 110, 129, 176, 241
  • Creighton, O.H., 2002, Castles and Landscapes: Power, Community and Fortification in Medieval England p. 118-19
  • Salter, Mike, 2001, The Castles and Tower Houses of Yorkshire (Malvern: Folly Publications) p. 52
  • King, D.J.C., 1983, Castellarium Anglicanum (London: Kraus) Vol. 2 p. 519
  • Illingworth, J.L., 1938 (republished 1970), Yorkshire's Ruined Castles (Wakefield) p. 128
  • Armitage and Montgomerie, 1912, in Page, Wm (ed), VCH Yorkshire Vol. 2 p. 31-2

Journals

  • Constable, Chris, 2006, 'Earthwork castles in West Yorkshire' Archaeology and Archives in West Yorkshire Vol. 23 p. 5-6 online copy
  • King, D.J.C. and Alcock, L., 1969, 'Ringworks in England and Wales' Château Gaillard Vol. 3 p. 90-127
  • Clark, G.T., 1889, 'Contribution towards a complete list of moated mounds or burhs' The Archaeological Journal Vol. 46 p. 197-217 esp. 215 online copy
  • 1887, The Gentleman's Magazine p. 367

Primary Sources

  • Brown, Wm (ed), 1892, Yorkshire inquisitions of the reigns of Henry III. and Edward I Vol. 1 (Yorkshire Record Series 12) p. 63-5 online copy

Other

  • WYAS, 2005, Kippax Ringwork, Kippax, Geophyscial Survey
  • Constable, Christopher, 2003, Aspects of the archaeology of the castle in the north of England C 1066-1216 (Doctoral thesis, Durham University) Available at Durham E-Theses Online