Hereford Castle

Has been described as a Certain Timber Castle (Motte), and also as a Certain Masonry Castle

There are earthwork remains

NameHereford Castle
Alternative NamesHogg's Mount
Historic CountryHerefordshire
Modern AuthorityHerefordshire
1974 AuthorityHereford and Worcester
Civil ParishHereford

There are grounds for thinking that there was already a castle in Hereford in 1066. The post-Conquest castle consisted of a motte, now entirely destroyed, and a Kite-shaped bailey to the east, surrounded on three sides by a moat and on the fourth by the R Wye. Leland described the castle as having being one of the fairest, strongest and largest in England, the walls 'highe and stronge and full of great towres'. The bailey with its enclosing banks is now a recreation ground; the rampart on the north rises 21.5 ft above the water level of the castle-pool (part of the moat still filled with water) and beyond the moat to the east the ground outside is 29 ft below the top of the rampart. The ditch has been obliterated by a modern road on the east and there is only a low rampart on the south towards the river. On the west a slight scarp indicates the position of the ditch between the bailey and the former motte. The curtain wall and buildings within the castle were mainly 13th c although part of the wall is mentioned as being in need of repair in the L 12th c. It was much damaged in the Civil War, and what remained was mostly demolished in 1660. The house at the SW angle of the bailey was long used as the city Bridewell and has been largely reconstructed in modern times, but the north front retains a doorway of c. 1300. (PastScape ref. HKW and RCHME)

Gatehouse Comments

Hogg's Mount, a second mound on the NE corner of the castle, may have been the site of the pre-Conquest castle.

- Philip Davis

This site is a scheduled monument protected by law

Not Listed

Historic England (PastScape) Defra or Monument number(s)
County Historic Environment Record
OS Map Grid ReferenceSO511396
Latitude52.0526313781738
Longitude-2.71305990219116
Eastings351140
Northings239650
HyperLink HyperLink HyperLink
Photo by Philip Davis All Rights Reserved
Photo by Philip Davis All Rights Reserved
Photo by Philip Davis All Rights Reserved
Photo by Philip Davis All Rights Reserved
Photo by Philip Davis All Rights Reserved
Photo by Philip Davis All Rights Reserved
Copyright David Stowell and licensed for reuse under this Creative Commons license.
Copyright David Stowell and licensed for reuse under this Creative Commons license.
Copyright Trevor Rickard and licensed for reuse under this Creative Commons license.
Copyright Pauline Eccles and licensed for reuse under this Creative Commons license.

Most of the sites or buildings recorded in this web site are NOT open to the public and permission to visit a site must always be sought from the landowner or tenant.

Calculate Print

Books

  • Goodall, John, 2011, The English Castle 1066-1650 (Yale University Press) p. 52, 62, 253, 343
  • Shoesmith, Ron, 2009 (Rev edn.), Castles and Moated Sites of Herefordshire (Logaston Press) p. 144-62
  • Whitehead, D., 2007, The Castle Green at Hereford: a landscape of ritual, royalty and recreation (Almeley: Logaston Press)
  • Emery, Anthony, 2000, Greater Medieval Houses of England and Wales Vol. 2 East Anglia, Central England and Wales (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) p. 476
  • Salter, Mike, 2000, Castles of Herefordshire and Worcestershire (Malvern: Folly Publications) p. 36-8 (plan)
  • Pettifer, A., 1995, English Castles, A guide by counties (Woodbridge: Boydell Press) p. 98
  • Higham, R. and Barker, P., 1992, Timber Castles (Batsford) p. 43, 44, 172
  • Stirling-Brown, R., 1989, Herefordshire Castles (privately published) p. 7
  • Drage, C., 1987, 'Urban castles' in Schofield, J. and Leech, R. (eds) Urban Archaeology in Britain (CBA Research Report 61) p. 117-32 online copy
  • King, D.J.C., 1983, Castellarium Anglicanum (London: Kraus) Vol. 1 p. 206
  • 1981, Herefordshire Countryside Treasures (Hereford and Worcester County Council) p. 56
  • Fry, P.S., 1980, Castles of the British Isles (David and Charles) p. 242-3
  • Shoesmith, Ron, 1980, Hereford City Excavations - Vol. 1: Excavations at Castle Green (CBA Research Report 36) online copy
  • Renn, D.F., 1973 (2 edn.), Norman Castles of Britain (London: John Baker) p. 204-5
  • 1969, Archaeological excavations 1968 (HMSO) p. 23
  • Colvin, H.M., Brown, R.Allen and Taylor, A.J., 1963, The history of the King's Works Vol. 2: the Middle Ages (London: HMSO) p. 673-7
  • RCHME, 1931, An inventory of the historical monuments in Herefordshire Vol. 1: south-west p. 119, 126 No. 4 online transcription
  • Oman, Charles W.C., 1926, Castles (1978 edn Beetham House: New York) p. 148
  • Armitage, Ella, 1912, The Early Norman Castles of the British Isles (London: John Murray) p. 161-2 online copy
  • Harvey, Alfred, 1911, Castles and Walled Towns of England (London: Methuen and Co)
  • Gould, I. Chalkley, 1908, in Page, Wm (ed), VCH Herefordshire Vol. 1 p. 238-9 (plan)
  • Mackenzie, J.D., 1896, Castles of England; their story and structure (New York: Macmillan) Vol. 2 p. 107-9 online copy
  • Clark, G.T., 1884, Mediaeval Military Architecture in England (Wyman and Sons) Vol. 2 p. 108-19 online copy
  • Robinson, C.J., 1869, The Castles of Herefordshire and Their Lords (London: Longman) p. 71-5 online copy
  • Turner, T.H. and Parker, J.H., 1859, Some account of Domestic Architecture in England (Oxford) Vol. 3 Part 2 p. 377 online copy

Antiquarian

  • Camden, Wm, 1607, Britannia hypertext critical edition by Dana F. Sutton (2004)
  • Chandler, John, 1993, John Leland's Itinerary: travels in Tudor England  (Sutton Publishing) p. 215, 218, 225
  • Toulmin-Smith, Lucy (ed), 1908, The itinerary of John Leland in or about the years 1535-1543 (London: Bell and Sons) Vol. 2 p. 64-5 online copy
  • Celia Fiennes, 1888, Through England on a Side Saddle in the Time of William and Mary (London: Field and Tuer, The Leadenhall Press) Vision of Britain online transcription

Journals

  • Richard Nevell, 2014-15, 'Castles as prisons' Castle Studies Group Journal Vol. 28 p. 203-224
  • Shoesmith, Ron, 2007, 'Archaeology: Report of Sectional Recorder 2007' Transactions of the Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club Vol. 55 p. 138
  • Boucher, A., 2005, 'Hereford, Castle Pool' West Midlands Archaeology Vol. 48 p. 29-30
  • Eisel, J.C., 2003, 'The post-Civil War history of the site of Hereford Castle' Transactions of the Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club Vol. 51 p. 11-36
  • Shoesmith, R., 2002, 'Archaeology 2002, Report of Sectional Recorder' Transactions of the Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club Vol. 50.3 p. 387
  • Shoesmith, R., 2000, 'Archaeology 2000, Report of Sectional Recorder' Transactions of the Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club Vol. 50.1 p. 95
  • Shoesmith, R. and Crosskey, R., 1994, 'Go to Gaol... in Hereford' Transactions of the Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club Vol. 48.1 p. 97-139
  • Thompson, M.W., 1986, 'Associated monasteries and castles in the Middle Ages: a tentative list' The Archaeological Journal Vol. 143 p. 313
  • Kenyon, John R., 1996, 'Fluctuating Frontiers: Normanno-Welsh Castle Warfare c. 1075 to 1240' Château Gaillard Vol. 17 p. 119-126
  • Youngs, S.M., Clark, J. and Barry, T.B., 1984, 'Medieval Britain and Ireland in 1983' Medieval Archaeology Vol. 28 p. 186 download copy
  • Shoesmith, Ron, 1976-8, 'Archaeology, 1976: City of Hereford Archaeology Committee' Transactions of the Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club Vol. 42 p. 97-100
  • Webster, L.E. and Cherry, J., 1977, 'Medieval Britain in 1976' Medieval Archaeology Vol. 21 p. 244 download copy
  • Webster, L.E. and Cherry, J., 1976, 'Medieval Britain in 1975' Medieval Archaeology Vol. 20 p. 189 download copy
  • Shoesmith, Ron, 1973, CBA Group 12 Vol. 13 p. 49-50
  • King, D.J.Cathcart, 1972, 'The Field Archaeology of mottes; Eine kurze übersicht' Château Gaillard Vol. 5 p. 101-112
  • Leach, P J. ,1971, 'Hereford Castle Excavations 1968-69' Transactions of the Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club Vol. 40.2 p. 211-24
  • 1970, Medieval Archaeology Vol. 14 p. 176 download copy
  • 1969, Medieval Archaeology Vol. 13 p. 258 online copy
  • Shoesmith, Ron, 1969, 'Reports on Sectional Recorders Archaeology' Transactions of the Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club p. 476
  • Shoesmith, Ron (ed), 1969, Herefordshire Archaeological News Vol. 15 p. 4
  • Shoesmith, Ron (ed), 1969, Herefordshire Archaeological News Vol. 13 p. 9
  • Davidson, Brian K., 1969, 'Early earthwork castles: a new model' Château Gaillard Vol. 3 p. 37-47
  • Brown, R. Allen, 1969, 'The Norman Conquest and the Genesis of English Castles' Château Gaillard Vol. 3 p. 1-14
  • Shoesmith, Ron (ed), 1968, Herefordshire Archaeological News Vol. 11, 3
  • Hogg, A.H.A. and King, D.J.C., 1967, 'Masonry castles in Wales and the Marches: a list' Archaeologia Cambrensis Vol. 116 p. 71-132
  • Noble, F., 1964, 'Medieval boroughs of West Herefordshire' Transactions of the Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club
  • Renn, D.F., 1964, 'The first Norman Castles in England 1051-1071' Château Gaillard Vol. 1 p. 125-132
  • Hogg, A.H.A. and King, D.J.C., 1963, 'Early castles in Wales and the Marches: a preliminary list' Archaeologia Cambrensis Vol. 112 p. 77-124
  • Heys, F.G., 1960, 'Castle Green, Excavations at, 1960' Transactions of the Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club Vol. 36.3 p. 343-57, 387-92
  • Brown, R. Allen, 1959, 'A List of Castles, 1154–1216' English Historical Review Vol. 74 p. 249-280 (Reprinted in Brown, R. Allen, 1989, Castles, conquest and charters: collected papers (Woodbridge: Boydell Press) p. 90-121) view online copy (subscription required)
  • Brown, R. Allen, 1955, 'Royal Castle-building in England 1154-1216' English Historical Review Vol. 70 (Reprinted in Brown, R. Allen, 1989, Castles, conquest and charters: collected papers (Woodbridge: Boydell Press)) p. 19-64
  • 1954, 'Harley, Major J R H, Copies of documents belonging to: (i) Hereford Castle' Transactions of the Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club p. 291-3
  • Watkins, A., 1933, 'Foundations of Buildings in Hereford Castle' Transactions of the Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club p. 36-41
  • Clark, G.T., 1889, 'Contribution towards a complete list of moated mounds or burhs' The Archaeological Journal Vol. 46 p. 197-217 esp. 204-5 online copy
  • Lloyd, James W., 1884, 'Hereford Castle and Appurtenances in the Seventeenth Century' Transactions of the Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club p. 161-4 (surveys etc)

Guide Books

  • Shoesmith, R., 1980, A short history of Castle Green and Hereford Castle (Hereford)

Primary Sources

  • Ingram, James, (ed) 1912, The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (Everyman Press, London) AD1067 view online transcription (Ingram's translation and notes date from 1823. More recent translations of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles should be consulted for serious study)
  • Sewell, R.C. (ed), 1846, Gesta Stephani, Regis Anglorum et Ducis Normannorum p. 61 online copy (The newer edition and translation by Potter, K.R. (ed), 1976 (2edn), Gesta Stephani (Oxford University Press) should be consulted for serious study. See also Speight, S., 2000, 'Castle Warfare in the Gesta Stephani' , Château Gaillard Vol. 19 [see online transcription > http://web.archive.org/web/20101229213751/http://www.deremilitari.org/resources/articles/speight.htm])
  • Arnold, T. (ed), 1879, Henrici Archidiaconi Huntendunesis Historia Anglorum (London: Rolls Series 74) p. 261 online copy
  • le Prevost, A. (ed), 1855, Ordericus Vitalis, Historica Ecclesiastica Vol. 5 p. 112 online copy
  • Thorpe, B. (ed), 1849, Florentii Wigorniensis monachi. Chronicon ex Chronicis (London) Vol. 2 p. p. 106 (1138) online copy
  • Hog, T. (ed), 1845, F. Nicholai Triveti de ordine frat. praedicatorum Annales sex regum Angliae, qui a comitibus andegavensibus originem traxerunt (English Historical Society) p. 254 online copy
  • Luard, H.R. (ed), 1890, Flores Historiarum, per Mathaeum Westmo santeriensem collecti (Rolls Series 95) Vol. 2 p. 498 (1264)
  • 1887, The Great Roll of the Pipe for the eleventh year of the reign of King Henry the Second, A.D. 1164-1165 (Pipe Roll Society Publications 8)
  • 1890, The Great Roll of the Pipe for the fifteenth year of the reign of King Henry the Second, A.D. 1168-1169 (Pipe Roll Society Publications 13) p. 140 online copy
  • 1910, The Great Roll of the Pipe for the twenty-eighth year of the reign of King Henry II A.D. 1181-1182 (Pipe Rolls Society 31) p. 12 online copy
  • Stenton, D.M. (ed.), 1938, The Great Roll of the Pipe for the fifth year of the reign of King John, Michaelmas 1203 (Pipe roll 49) (Pipe Roll Society Publications 54)
  • Stubbs, W. (ed), 1880, The Minor Works comprising the Gesta regum with its continuation, the Actus pontificum, and the Mappa mundi, by Gervase, the Monk of Canterbury (London: Longman Rolls series 73) Vol. 2 p. 436 online copy
  • Rickard, John, 2002, The Castle Community. The Personnel of English and Welsh Castles, 1272-1422 (Boydell Press) (lists sources for 1272-1422) p. 243-4
  • C145/9(10) (Survey of 1254) The National Archives reference (calendared in Maxwell Lyte, H.C., 1916, Calendar of Inquisitions Miscellaneous (Chancery), preserved in the Public Record Office (H.M.S.O.) Vol. 1 No. 205)
  • E101/547/10 (Survey of Edward I) The National Archives reference
  • E317 Heref/10 (Survey of Commonwealth) The National Archives reference

Other

  • Fradley, Michael, 2011, The Old in the New: Urban Castle Imposition in Anglo-Norman England, AD1050-1150 (University of Exeter PhD Thesis) available via EThOS