Bishop Auckland Castle

Has been described as a Certain Masonry Castle, and also as a Certain Palace (Bishop)

There are major building remains

NameBishop Auckland Castle
Alternative NamesAkeland; Aukland
Historic CountryDurham
Modern AuthorityDurham
1974 AuthorityCounty Durham
Civil ParishBishop Auckland

Bishop's palace. Official residence of Bishop of Durham, diocesan office, and 2 independent flats. Manor house probably begun for Bishop du Puiset (1153-95), completed in first half of C13, altered and enlarged for Bishop Bek (1284-1311) (Cunningham 1990). Scotland wing probably C16 long gallery for Bishop Tunstall, later used as granary. Mid-C18 division into rooms, and c1980 alterations and insertion of mezzanine floor. North-south range, alterations and additions include c1530 addition of south dining room for Bishops Ruthal and Tunstall, and substantial rebuilding dated 1664 for Bishop Cosin. Also 1767-72 for Bishops Trevor and Egerton possibly by John Carr, and c1795 for Bishop Barrington by James Wyatt. Medieval parts coursed rubble, later parts mostly coursed squared sandstone, with ashlar dressings. Roofs Lakeland slate and lead, Scotland wing roof concrete tiles.

PLAN: irregular. Medieval manor included great hall running west-east at east of site and with its own services at east end. Great hall is now Chapel of St Peter (qv). To west of this, probably originally with extruded stair in angle between, a kitchen range ran north-south. From this range the Scotland wing runs east-west.

EXTERIOR: east elevation: 2 storeys of varied heights, 1:1:1:4 bays. At left, one bay mid-late C18 projects slightly, and has flat-headed 3-light ground floor window with Gothick glazing bars and traceried heads under label mould. Tall sash above has intersecting glazing bars in Tudor-arched window with dripmould. At right of this bay, straight join to 2-bay L-plan with stone-mullioned 3-light windows with trefoil tracery and moulded spandrels under flat head with dripmould; shallow elliptical head to door at right to private apartments and offices. Large window above has stone Y tracery between 2 lights with Gothick glazing bars under dripmould

Similar windows in next bay breaking forward with polygonal projecting bay window to front and 2 windows in returns, with ground-floor dripstring, the front bay window and the rear on the return with ogee heads to ground-floor lights, below band (originally with battlemented parapet before upper floor added) with richly carved arms of Ruthall and Tunstall and moulded surrounds. Moulded plinth to this build, and quoins at right. Set back above is second floor of C17 front range, with 3-light stone-mullioned traceried windows, the left blocked. 4-bay state room range set back to right has high ashlar plinth, rainwater heads dated 1664, and tall first floor. 3-light ground-floor windows have stone mullions and heads, and first-floor sashes have Gothick glazing bars, except in 4th bay which is obscured by lower projection containing porch to Chapel of St Peter. All parapets battlemented, the state room with full-height buttresses with pinnacles, the angles with ogee domes of Cosin's work as in Chapel of St Peter. Low pitched and flat roofs except Scotland Wing which has steeply pitched roofs to main and shorter 2nd rear parallel range. Left return has symmetrical south elevation to C18 addition, with 1:3:1 windows, the centre a canted bay. Set-back low-pitched gable to left of centre has blocked roundel under battlements. Similar gable set back at right to state rooms. Scotland wing at west: south elevation 3 storeys, 10 windows. Large square buttresses with many offsets to first 2 floors to right of 4th window and almost full height to left of 3rd window from right end. Coped truncated chimney projection at centre. Ground floor has Tudor stone heads and label moulds to ledged boarded door at left and half-glazed door at right; flat-headed windows, all renewed and most blocked, with chamfered stone surrounds and label moulds. Sashes, smaller on first floor, have fine glazing bars with Gothic heads. Left return has first-floor stone oriel on stone corbels; eaves raised in brick from swept to straight pitch. Rear of whole building has much medieval detail and fine C18 Gothick work.

INTERIOR: entrance hall to domestic range and offices has mid C18 Classical stone arcades. Ground-floor library to right has beams on corbels, and truncated stone pillar in centre of bay window. Offices to left have mid-C18 detail including Greek key fret to fireplace in Secretary's room. Above, private apartments at rear, partly on mezzanine floor, have broad glazing bars to windows to west and in part of Scotland wing which is included, and blocked narrow splayed medieval windows partly revealed in cupboards on east wall. At north end of this a private oratory contains re-used C16 panelling with painted heraldic devices of various European monarchs and of English counties along frieze. Raine describes such panelling as being in 'the housekeeper's room' which seems to have been in the bay with projecting window to right of the private entrance. Rooms at south in extension by Wyatt have late C18 stucco decoration. Rich mid-C18 rococo decoration to dining room, known as King Charles Room, including chimney piece with cornice breaking forward in scroll brackets, and pilasters and inlay of coloured marble with carved panel on frieze showing children and bird's nest. Ceiling has stucco of Italian York school with central sunburst and rich mouldings, plus 6-panel doors in architraves, the mid C18 ones with cornices, some with broken pediments, on pulvinated friezes. State rooms: entrance is through ground-floor room known formerly as the Gentlemen's Hall, which has Wyatt decoration applied to older structure with beams and ceiling stuccoed with blind tracery, and Gothick chimney piece with re-used C17 carved wood overmantel. Wyatt inserted Imperial stair in W end of this room, with paired shafted Gothick balusters and ramped moulded handrail. Half-landing and landing windows are large sashes with delicate glazing bars. All doors in the state rooms are panelled with blind tracery, from the vestibule onwards, which like those to all rooms and cupboards in the major rooms is in Gothick arch with dripmould. Wyatt divided Cosin's long chamber, its wide floorboards still in situ, to make ante-room and throne room, both with Gothick detail including ribbed stucco ceiling panels. Ante-room has canted corners with arched niches. Throne room has delicate stucco shallow canopy to throne, and grey marble or limestone Gothick chimney piece. State dining room to south is mid C18 with rich decoration including chimney piece with terms supporting cornice over moulded frieze, deep dado rail, coved ceiling with guilloche panels with 2 leaf swirls for lights and central painted arms of Bishop Trevor. At north end of this range Bishop Trevor added private apartments now known as the Victoria Flat. They have fine mid C18 decoration including pronounced dado rails, with dentilled enrichment in the bedroom, and with good chimney pieces in 2 bedrooms. Some ceiling cornices, all doors 6-panelled, and in north room, Bishop Trevor's arms on chimney piece. One room divided mid C19 to provide kitchen and bathroom, but canted corner chimney breast survives although chimney piece removed or obscured. In the angled passage to this flat from a narrow stair to left of the chapel porch there are walls which must be C18 lining; a small door high in this wall, at first-floor level, reveals painted wall decoration extending across 2 floor levels, showing a Cross of Lorraine and other heraldic devices - difficult to see. The Cross of Lorraine appears as part of Bishop Bek's patriarchal seal (Raine p.22). This painting could have been executed to decorate the grand stair which was removed by Wyatt. In east corridor of this flat a cupboard with C17 doors, which is in the rear of the west wall of the chapel. Former kitchen range has 3 octagonal stone piers down centre, fireplace detail obscured by boiler fittings. North door of principal room late C15, ledged and boarded with hollow-moulded Tudor arch, has part of inscription carved in spandrels. Similar inscription in serving hatch of Durham Castle kitchen inscribed 1499 for Bishop Fox is complete and reads Est Deo Gracia, suggesting that a door to the left has been removed. In small room to north of this, now fitted as public toilets, a creeing trough is set in square mortared rubble block beside steps to right of door. Scotland wing shows evidence of early fabric on ground floor although much obscured by plaster and removed by alterations, with deeply splayed blocked door in centre north, with smoothly dressed octagonal stone slab with rough edges set on round stone pedestal beside door. In west bay a deeply-chamfered door. In short north range c1980 staircase inserted. On first floor a damaged elliptical fire lintel on south wall, now high above inserted mezzanine floor. Offices at west end include boxed-in medieval pointed arch, garderobe chamber on north wall, and mid C18 chimney piece and stucco ceiling cornice. Upper floor rooms have c1700 2-panel doors. Roof partly inspected. Throne room has king and queen posts with bolted struts to rafters from posts, and much old graffiti made by workmen. Scotland wing has collared pegged trusses with purlins at ridge and 2 levels at sides. The full account of this building's history by Raine gives many extracts from building accounts but must be read bearing in mind that Raine had not understood that the medieval hall is the present chapel. (Listed Building Report)

Gatehouse Comments

Malcolm Thurlby dates the hall as completed under Bishop Puiset (i.e. complete before 1195), rather than just started by him and completed in the C13.

- Philip Davis

Not scheduled

This is a Grade 1 listed building protected by law

Historic England Scheduled Monument Number
Historic England Listed Building number(s)
Images Of England
Historic England (PastScape) Defra or Monument number(s)
County Historic Environment Record
OS Map Grid ReferenceNZ212302
Latitude54.6664085388184
Longitude-1.67025995254517
Eastings421210
Northings530230
HyperLink HyperLink HyperLink
Photograph by Philip Davis. All rights reserved
Photograph by Philip Davis. All rights reserved
Photograph by Philip Davis. All rights reserved
Photograph by Philip Davis. All rights reserved
Photograph by Philip Davis. All rights reserved
Photograph by Philip Davis. All rights reserved
Photograph by Philip Davis. All rights reserved
Photograph by Philip Davis. All rights reserved
Photograph by Philip Davis. All rights reserved
Photograph by Philip Davis. All rights reserved
Photo by Philip Davis All Rights Reserved
Photo by Philip Davis All Rights Reserved
Photo by Philip Davis All Rights Reserved
Photo by Philip Davis All Rights Reserved
Copyright Dave Barlow of Abaroths World All rights reserved
Copyright Dave Barlow of Abaroths World All rights reserved
Copyright Dave Barlow of Abaroths World All rights reserved
Copyright Dave Barlow of Abaroths World All rights reserved
Copyright Dave Barlow of Abaroths World All rights reserved
Copyright Dave Barlow of Abaroths World All rights reserved
Copyright Dave Barlow of Abaroths World All rights reserved
Copyright Dave Barlow of Abaroths World All rights reserved
Copyright Dave Barlow of Abaroths World All rights reserved
Copyright Dave Barlow of Abaroths World All rights reserved
Copyright Dave Barlow of Abaroths World All rights reserved
Copyright Dave Barlow of Abaroths World All rights reserved
Copyright Dave Barlow of Abaroths World All rights reserved
Copyright Dave Barlow of Abaroths World All rights reserved
Copyright Dave Barlow of Abaroths World All rights reserved
Copyright Dave Barlow of Abaroths World All rights reserved
Copyright Dave Barlow of Abaroths World All rights reserved
Copyright Dave Barlow of Abaroths World All rights reserved
Copyright Dave Barlow of Abaroths World All rights reserved
Copyright Dave Barlow of Abaroths World All rights reserved
Copyright Dave Barlow of Abaroths World All rights reserved

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Books

  • Goodall, John, 2011, The English Castle 1066-1650 (Yale University Press) p. 132, 230, 347, 48, 436
  • Geldard, Ed, 2009, Northumberland Strongholds (London: Frances Lincoln) p. 88
  • Salter, Mike, 2002, The Castles and Tower Houses of County Durham (Malvern: Folly Publications) p. 15-17
  • Cooper, Nicholas, 1999, Houses of the Gentry, 1480-1680 (Yale University Press) passim
  • Thompson, M.W., 1998, Medieval bishops' houses in England and Wales (Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing) p. 5, 55-6, 65, 116, 156, 158, 175
  • Jackson, M.J., 1996, Castles of Durham and Cleveland (Carlisle) p. 11-3 (plan)
  • Emery, Anthony, 1996, Greater Medieval Houses of England and Wales Vol. 1 Northern England (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) p. 51-4
  • Pettifer, A., 1995, English Castles, A guide by counties (Woodbridge: Boydell Press) p. 25
  • Corfe, Tom (ed), 1992, 'The Visible Middle Ages' in An Historical Atlas of County Durham p. 28-9
  • Cunningham J., 1990, 'Auckland Castle: Some Recent Discoveries' in Fernie, E. and Crossley, P. (eds), 1990, Medieval Architecture and its Intellectual Context (London) p. 81-90
  • James, T.B., 1990, The Palaces of Medieval England (London; Seaby) p. 52, 100-1, 174
  • King, D.J.C., 1983, Castellarium Anglicanum (London: Kraus) Vol. 1 p. 134
  • Pevsner, N., 1983 (2edn), Buildings of England: Durham (London, Penguin) p. 101-6
  • Hugill, Robert, 1979, The Castles and Towers of the County of Durham (Newcastle; Frank Graham) p. 22-28
  • Kirby, D.A. (ed), 1968, Parliamentary Surveys of the Bishopric of Durham. Vol. I (Surtees Society 183) p. 3, 10-14, 87-8
  • Harvey, Alfred, 1911, Castles and Walled Towns of England (London: Methuen and Co)
  • Simkins M.E., 1911, 'Auckland Castle' in Rait, R.S. (ed), English Episcopal Palaces (Province of York) (London; Constable & Co) p. 201-234 online copy
  • Leighton, 1910, in Memories of Old Durham (London) p. 200-3
  • Mackenzie, J.D., 1897, Castles of England Vol. 2 p. 334-5 online copy
  • Whellan, F., 1894 (2edn), History, Topography and Directory of the County of Durham p. 327
  • Boyle, J.R., 1892, Comprehensive Guide to the County of Durham: its Castles, Churches, and Manor-Houses (London) p. 482-97
  • Sykes, J., 1866, Local Records of Northumberland and Durham Vol. 2 p. 373
  • Raine, J. 1852, Brief Historical Account of the Episcopal Castle of Auckland (Durham)
  • Brayley, E. and Britton, J., 1803, Beauties of England and Wales; Durham Vol. 5 p. 219-21
  • Buck, Samuel and Nathaniel, 1774, Buck's Antiquities (London) Vol. 1 p. 80

Antiquarian

  • Camden, Wm, 1607, Britannia hypertext critical edition by Dana F. Sutton (2004)
  • Chandler, John, 1993, John Leland's Itinerary: travels in Tudor England  (Sutton Publishing) p. 147-8, 156
  • Toulmin-Smith, Lucy (ed), 1910, The itinerary of John Leland in or about the years 1535-1543 (London: Bell and Sons) Vol. 5 p. 48, 128 online copy

Journals

  • 2012-13, 'Castle Studies Group Conference 2012 report' Castle Studies Group Journal Vol. 26 p. 58-63
  • Thompson, M.W., 1986, 'Associated monasteries and castles in the Middle Ages: a tentative list' The Archaeological Journal Vol. 143 p. 317
  • 1972, Country Life Vol. 151 p. 198-202, 266-70, 334-7
  • Charlton, J., 1954 'Auckland Castle' The Archaeological Journal Vol. 111
  • Hodgson J.F.,1898, 'The Episcopal Chapel of Auckland Castle' Archaeologia Aeliana (ser2) Vol. 19 p. 89-92 online copy
  • Hodgson J.F.,1896, 'The Chapel of Auckland Castle' Archaeologia Aeliana (ser2) Vol. 18 p. 113-240 online copy
  • Gibson, W.S. 1868, 'Auckland Castle' Transactions of the Architectural and Archaeological Society of Durham and Northumberland Vol. 1 p. 28-46 online copy
  • 1862, The Gentleman's Magazine Vol. 13 Part 2 p. 588-93 online copy

Guide Books

  • Ruth Etchells, nd (c, 2000), Auckland Castle The seat of the Bishop of Durham (Temprint)
  • Bishop Moule, 1918, Auckland Castle (Durham)

Other

  • Historic England, 2015, Heritage at Risk North East Register 2015 (London: Historic England) p. 1 online copy
  • Malcolm Thurlby, 2015 July 2, 'Bishop Puiset's Hall at Auckland Castle in relation to later Twelfth-Century episcopal halls in England' paper given at Princes of the Church and their Palaces conference Bishop Auckland.
  • English Heritage, 2014, Heritage at Risk Register 2014 North East (London: English Heritage) p. 1 online copy
  • English Heritage, 2013, Heritage at Risk Register 2013 North East (London: English Heritage) p. 1 online copy
  • English Heritage, 2012, Heritage at Risk Register 2012 North East (London: English Heritage) p. 18 online copy
  • English Heritage, 2011, Heritage at Risk Register 2011 North East (London: English Heritage) p. 18 online copy
  • English Heritage, 2010, Heritage at Risk Register 2010 North East (London: English Heritage) p. 16 online copy
  • English Heritage, 2009, Heritage at Risk Register 2009 North East (London: English Heritage) p. 26 online copy
  • Payne, Naomi, 2003, The medieval residences of the bishops of Bath and Wells, and Salisbury (PhD Thesis University of Bristol) Appendix B: List of Medieval Bishop's Palaces in England and Wales (available via EThOS)
  • Constable, Christopher, 2003, Aspects of the archaeology of the castle in the north of England C 1066-1216 (Doctoral thesis, Durham University) Available at Durham E-Theses Online