Piel Castle

Has been described as a Certain Masonry Castle

There are masonry ruins/remnants remains

NamePiel Castle
Alternative NamesFouldry; The Peel of Fouldry; The Pile of Fotheray; Fowdray; Peele
Historic CountryLancashire
Modern AuthorityCumbria
1974 AuthorityCumbria
Civil ParishBarrow in Furness

Originally fortified in the Reign of King Stephen (1135-54). A licence to crenellate was granted in 1327 to the Abbot and Convent of Furness and the visible remains probably date from that period. Dismantled 1403 and partly rebuilt circa 1429, The castle was ruinous by 1537. It was renovated in the mid C19. The monument is an enclosure castle consisting of a keep, gatehouse, inner and outer baileys, an inner and outer moat, curtain walls and towers. Excavations and survey in 1983-4 produced very few remains of medieval occupation, but showed that there was more than one building phase. Cobble rubble with red sandstone dressings. Incomplete 3-storey keep now of 2 long cells with north gatehouse; east side collapsed. Inner defence on 2 sides has gatehouse to west and corner towers. Less complete outer bailey with section of wall and freestanding towers linked by mound and ditch. Keep: chamfered plinth; offset diagonal buttresses and mid-point buttresses; pointed, 2-light windows originally with quatrefoils. Vaulted gatehouse has moulded, pointed arch with clinging figure carved on keystone; hexagonal clasping buttresses. Internal spiral stair to left is lit by slits each side of the buttress; wall bows out at another spiral stair on right return. Projection at south-east corner has different floor levels. Vaulted look-outs at corners of parapet. Inner defence: 2-storey west gatehouse with pointed arches and 2 flights of steps against wall to north; north-west tower is 5-sided. Furness Abbey engaged in much trade through Piel Harbour and fortified this site soon after the Scottish invasions of 1316 and 1322. The castle provided a secure warehouse for contraband goods including Flemish wool. Henry IV briefly took possession but not before the abbots had the roof stripped to ensure the King did not install revenue men. In 1487 Lambert Simnel and an army of mercenaries landed at Piel intending to dethrone Henry VII; their march ended in defeat at the Battle of Stoke

(Derived from PastScape and Listed Building Report)

The monument is a rare example of a castle controlled largely by a monastic order. As such it testifies to the wealth, power and influence of the Savignac and latterly Cistercian monks of Furness Abbey between the 12th - 16th centuries. The castle survives well, displays more than one building phase, and possesses a keep of unusual form.

The monument is Piel Castle, located at the southern end of Piel Island between Walney Island and the mainland. The castle is built of roughly coursed stone collected from the beach, with its architectural features constructed of red sandstone ashlar quarried in the vicinity of Furness Abbey. The castle guarded the main approaches to the deep-water harbour outside Barrow and includes a keep, gatehouse, inner and outer baileys, inner and outer moat, curtain walls and towers. The keep is extremely unusual, comprising three parallel compartments though the easternmost of these has fallen into the sea and its walls now lie on the beach. It lay within an inner ward, the south and east walls of which have also been eroded by the sea. There are towers at the south-west, north-west and north-east corners of the inner ward, the latter projecting north of the inner curtain wall. Access to the inner ward is by a gatehouse in the west curtain wall. A dry moat some 10m wide by 2.5m deep flanks the north and west sides of the inner curtain. Access from the outer ward to the gatehouse is now by a causeway but was originally provided by a drawbridge. The outer curtain wall survives best close to the north-east corner. On the western and north-western sides the wall does not survive above foundation level, while remains of its southern side lie tumbled on the beach. There are towers at the south-west, north-west and north-east corners. The former has short lengths of curtain wall attached and both this and the north-east tower project slightly beyond the wall. Flanking the north and west sides of the outer curtain is a dry moat up to 13m wide by 3m deep. Within the outer ward, adjacent to the north-east tower, is the foundation of a single freestanding building measuring some 10m by 6m traditionally referred to as the chapel. Its original function, however, is unclear. The original stronghold was erected for the monks of Furness Abbey in King Stephen's reign (1135-54). The castle was besieged by Robert Bruce in 1316, 1317 and 1322. A licence to crenellate was granted in 1327 and construction of the present castle is attributed to Abbot John Cockerham at about this time. In 1403 Abbot John de Bolton is said to have found the cost of the castle's upkeep beyond his means. About 1429 the castle was repaired and restored. In 1487 Lambert Simnel was proclaimed king here by his mercenary troops. The castle had a short period of occupation and was ruinous by 1537. During the mid-19th century the Duke of Buccleuch undertook renovations to the monument including construction of sea defences which slowed the pace of erosion on the southern and eastern sides of the castle. The family gave the island, including the castle, to Barrow Corporation in 1918, and the monument was taken into the guardianship of the Secretary of State the following year. (Scheduling Report)

Gatehouse Comments

The value of the building to the Abbey may have been multifold. A high status symbol of the importance of the Abbey to passing ships; an centre for the administration and tax collection of an estate and of the trade to the Abbey's estates in Ireland and the Isle of Man; a retreat for the Abbot and monks where sea-fish and water fowl would have been an luxurious improvement on the normal monastic diet of freshwater fish. However as a strongly built building at a tactically useful position controlling coastal shipping it would have been a target for military action and then require fortification and garrisoning with the associated cost. In this case it may well be that the licence to crenellate of 1327 was granted in association with producing some serious defensive features of the existing buildings, although it should be noted that generally licence to crenellate were granted to building with only token defensive features.

- Philip Davis

This site is a scheduled monument protected by law

This is a Grade 1 listed building protected by law

Historic England Scheduled Monument Number
Historic England Listed Building number(s)
Images Of England
Historic England (PastScape) Defra or Monument number(s)
County Historic Environment Record
OS Map Grid ReferenceSD232636
Latitude54.0625991821289
Longitude-3.17370009422302
Eastings323200
Northings463600
HyperLink HyperLink HyperLink
Photograph by Matthew Emmott. All rights reserved
Photograph by Matthew Emmott. All rights reserved
Photograph by Matthew Emmott. All rights reserved
Photograph by Matthew Emmott. All rights reserved

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Books

  • Grimsditch, Brian, Nevell, Michael and Nevell, Richard, 2012, Buckton Castle and the Castles of the North West England (University of Salford Archaeological Monograph 2) p. 114-15
  • Goodall, John, 2011, The English Castle 1066-1650 (Yale University Press) p. 247, 267
  • Rowe, Elizabeth, 2002, 'Piel Castle' in Yates, Sarah (ed), Heritage Unlocked; Guide to free sites in the North West (London: English Heritage) p. 40-1
  • Perriam, Denis and Robinson, John, 1998, The Medieval Fortified Buildings of Cumbria (Kendal: CWAAS Extra Series 29) 390-1 (plan)
  • Salter, Mike, 1998, The Castles and Tower Houses of Cumbria (Malvern: Folly Publications) p. 82-3
  • Emery, Anthony, 1996, Greater Medieval Houses of England and Wales Vol. 1 Northern England (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) p. 240, 263
  • Pettifer, A., 1995, English Castles, A guide by counties (Woodbridge: Boydell Press) p. 272
  • Cope, Jean, 1991, Castles in Cumbria (Cicerone Press) p. 78-81
  • Jackson, M.J.,1990, Castles of Cumbria (Carlisle: Carel Press) p. 81-2 (plan)
  • King, D.J.C., 1983, Castellarium Anglicanum (London: Kraus) Vol. 1 p. 247
  • Gibson, Leslie Irving, 1977, Lancashire Castles and Towers (Dalesman Books)
  • Colvin, H.M., Ransome, D.R. and Summerson, John, 1975, The history of the King's Works, Vol. 3: 1485-1660 (part 1) (London) p. 179n
  • Pevsner, Nikolaus, 1969, Buildings of England: Lancashire, The rural north (Harmondsworth) p. 189-90
  • Farrer, William and Brownbill, J. (eds), 1914, VCH Lancashire Vol. 8 p. 309-11 online transcription
  • Curwen, J.F., 1913, Castles and Fortified Towers of Cumberland, Westmorland and Lancashire North of the Sands (Kendal: CWAAS Extra Series 13) p. 68, 188, 191, 224-6
  • Harvey, Alfred, 1911, Castles and Walled Towns of England (London: Methuen and Co)
  • Fishwick, 1907, 'Castles and Fortified Houses' in Fishwick and P.H. Ditchfield (eds), Memorials of Old Lancashire (London: Bemrose and sons) Vol. 2 p. 17-18 online copy
  • Mackenzie, J.D., 1896, Castles of England; their story and structure (New York: Macmillan) Vol. 2 p. 185-7 online copy
  • Roper, W.O., 1880, Churches, Castles and Ancient Halls of North Lancashire Vol. 1 p. 192-32
  • Turner, T.H. and Parker, J.H., 1859, Some account of Domestic Architecture in England (Oxford) Vol. 3 Part 2 p. 408 online copy
  • Whitaker, T.D., 1823, A History of Richmondshire in the North Riding of the County of York (London) Vol. 2 p. 373-4 online copy
  • West, T., 1805, Antiquites of Furness (Ulverston) p. 367-74 online copy
  • Buck, Samuel and Nathaniel, 1774, Buck's Antiquities (London) Vol. 1 p. 154

Antiquarian

Journals

  • Nevell, Richard, 2012-13, 'Castle gatehouses in North West England' Castle Studies Group Journal Vol. 26 p. 258-81 online copy
  • Newman, R., 1996, 'Further structural analysis at Piel Castle 1987-94' Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society Vol. 96 p.121-137 online copy
  • Wood, Jason, 1992-93, 'Six Northern Castles - A review of recent work undertaken by the Lancaster University Archaeological Unit' Castle Studies Group Newsletter No. 6 p. 18-21 online scan
  • Newman, R., 1987, 'Excavations and survey at Piel Castle, near Barrow-in-Furness, Cumbria' Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society Vol. 87 p. 101-116 (plan) online copy
  • Newman, R., 1986, 'Piel Castle Survey and Excavations 1983-1985' Contrebis Vol. 12 p. 64-67 online copy
  • Youngs, S.M., Clark, J. and Barry, T.B., 1985, 'Medieval Britain and Ireland in 1984' Medieval Archaeology Vol. 29 p. 168 download copy
  • Newman R., 1984?, 'Excavation at Piel Castle, Cumbria, 1983' CBA Group 3 Newsbulletin p. 18-19
  • Curwen, J.F., 1910, 'Piel Castle, Lancashire' Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society Vol. 10 p. 271-287 (Plans) online copy
  • Fell, 1903-4, Proceedings of the Barrow Naturalists' Field Club Vol. 17 p. 231-8 (history)
  • Fishwick, H., 1901, 'The Old Castles of Lancashire' Transactions of the Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Society Vol. 19 p. 59-61 online copy
  • Harrison, Wm, 1878, 'Piel Castle' Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society Vol. 3 p. 232-40 online copy
  • Harrison, 1876-7, Proceedings of the Barrow Naturalists' Field Club p. 21-4

Guide Books

  • Harrison, S., Wood, J. and Newman, R., 1998, Furness Abbey (London: English Heritage)

Primary Sources

  • Beck, T.A. (ed), 1844, Annales Furnesienses (Ulverston) p. 281 online copy
  • Maxwell Lyte, H.C. (ed), 1891, Calendar of Patent Rolls Edward III (1327-30) Vol. 1 p. 169 online copy
  • Atkinson, J.C. (ed), 1886, The Coucher Book of Furness Abbey (Chetham Society) p. 215 online copy

Other

  • English Heritage, 2006, Extensive Urban Survey - Cumbria (Cumbria County Council) (slight) Download copy