Carlisle City Wall

Has been described as a Certain Urban Defence

There are major building remains

NameCarlisle City Wall
Alternative NamesBochard Gate; English Gate; Irish Gate; Scotch Gate; Tile Tower, {Bocher Gate, Caldew Gate, Richard Gate (Leland)}
Historic CountryCumberland
Modern AuthorityCumbria
1974 AuthorityCumbria
Civil ParishCarlisle

The remains of the City Walls begun in the 11th century, strengthened and rebuilt in succeeding centuries, are visible as follows:

(A) Extending southwards from the south west corner of the Castle curtain wall, almost to Annetwell. Grade 1.

(B) At West Walls, extending from Heads Lane northwards to the railway bridge, broken by Elim Gospel Hall and adjacent buildings. Grade 1 (Pevsner; Listed Building Report).

NY 39765594 - 39965577. The section of city wall on West Walls is scheduled.

Remains of City Walls at South West corner of the Castle. Grade I. Part of the City Walls begun in the C11, strenghtened and rebuilt in succeeding centuries, often breached or destroyed. This portion extends southwards from the South West corner of the Castle curtain wall, almost to Annetwell.

Remains of City Walls at West Walls. Grade I. Part of the City Walls begun in C11, strenghtened and rebuilt in succeeding centuries, often breached or destroyed. This portion extends from Heads Lane northwards to the railway bridge, broken by the Elim Gospel Hall and adjacent buildings (Listed Building Report).

The town defences were hardly altered after the 14th century, despite several invasion alarms. The only major construction was that of the Citadel at the south of the town in 1542 (Barley; HKW). (PastScape)

Gatehouse Comments

Medieval wall following line of Roman bank. William Rufus is reported to have 'set up walls' in 1092. Walls built in stone, possibly from as early as 1130. First murage grant 1232 and then almost continuously after in C13, less frequently in C14. Cost of repairs covered by intermittent grants of money in C15. West Wall survives and fragment of north wall. Wall dates from C12 with extensive repairs of different periods until current.

- Philip Davis

This site is a scheduled monument protected by law

This is a Grade 1 listed building protected by law

Historic England Scheduled Monument Number
Historic England Listed Building number(s)
Images Of England
Historic England (PastScape) Defra or Monument number(s)
County Historic Environment Record
OS Map Grid ReferenceNY396562
Latitude54.8961181640625
Longitude-2.94281005859375
Eastings339690
Northings556200
HyperLink HyperLink HyperLink
Photograph by Matthew Emmott. All rights reserved
Photograph by Matthew Emmott. All rights reserved
Photograph by Matthew Emmott. All rights reserved
Photograph by Matthew Emmott. All rights reserved
Photograph by Matthew Emmott. All rights reserved
Photograph by Matthew Emmott. All rights reserved
Photograph by Matthew Emmott. All rights reserved
Photograph by Matthew Emmott. All rights reserved
Photograph by Matthew Emmott. All rights reserved
Photograph by Matthew Emmott. All rights reserved

Most of the sites or buildings recorded in this web site are NOT open to the public and permission to visit a site must always be sought from the landowner or tenant.

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Books

  • Salter, Mike, 2013, Medieval Walled Towns (Malvern: Folly Publications) p. 44-6
  • Summerson, H., 2011, ‘The defences of medieval Carlisle’, in M. Brennand and K. J. Stringer (eds), The making of Carlisle: from Roman to railways, 85-102 (Kendal: CWAAS extra series 35)
  • Purton, P.F., 2009, A History of the Late Medieval Siege: 1200-1500 (Woodbridge: The Boydell Press) p. 86 (1292 siege), 90-1 (1315 siege)
  • Creighton, O.H. and Higham, R.A., 2005, Medieval Town Walls (Stroud: Tempus) p. 24, 65, 66, 114, 145, 197-8, 222, 224, 227, 230, 268, 278
  • Perriam, Denis and Robinson, John, 1998, The Medieval Fortified Buildings of Cumbria (Kendal: CWAAS Extra Series 29) p. 74-77
  • Salter, Mike, 1998, The Castles and Tower Houses of Cumbria (Malvern: Folly Publications) p. 33
  • Pettifer, A., 1995, English Castles, A guide by counties (Woodbridge: Boydell Press) p. 38
  • Bond, C.J., 1987, 'Anglo-Saxon and Medieval Defences' in Schofield, J. and Leech, R. (eds) Urban Archaeology in Britain (CBA Research Report 61) p. 92-116 online copy
  • King, D.J.C., 1983, Castellarium Anglicanum (London: Kraus) Vol. 1 p. 97
  • Colvin, H.M., Ransome, D.R. and Summerson, John, 1982, The history of the King's Works, Vol. 4: 1485-1660 (part 2) (London) p. 664-73
  • Hugill, Robert, 1977, Castles and Peles of Cumberland and Westmorland (Newcastle; Frank Graham) p. 60-63
  • Gosling, P.F., 1976, 'Carlisle: an archaeological survey of the historic town' in Clack, P.A.G. and Gosling, P.F. (eds) Archaeology in the North p. 165-8
  • Barley, M.W., 1975, 'Town Defences in England and Wales after 1066' in Barley (ed) The plans and topography of medieval towns in England and Wales (CBA Research Report 14) p. 57-71 plan p. 61 download/view online
  • Turner, H.L., 1971, Town Defences in England and Wales (London) p. 100-2
  • Pevsner, Nikolaus, 1967, Buildings of England: Cumberland and Westmorland (Harmondsworth) p. 99-100
  • Colvin, H.M., Brown, R.Allen and Taylor, A.J., 1963, The history of the King's Works Vol. 2: the Middle Ages (London: HMSO) p. 664-673
  • Curwen, J.F., 1913, Castles and Fortified Towers of Cumberland, Westmorland and Lancashire North of the Sands (Kendal: CWAAS Extra Series 13) p. 111-5, 118-9
  • Jefferson, S., 1838, History and Antiquities of Carlisle esp p. 279-82 online copy
  • Harvey, Alfred, 1911, Castles and Walled Towns of England (London: Methuen and Co) p. 237

Antiquarian

  • Speed, John, 1611-12, The Theatre of the Empire of Great Britain online copy
  • Camden, Wm, 1607, Britannia hypertext critical edition by Dana F. Sutton (2004)
  • Chandler, John, 1993, John Leland's Itinerary: travels in Tudor England  (Sutton Publishing) p. 94
  • Toulmin-Smith, Lucy (ed), 1910, The itinerary of John Leland in or about the years 1535-1543 (London: Bell and Sons) Vol. 5 p. 52 online copy
  • Celia Fiennes, 1888, Through England on a Side Saddle in the Time of William and Mary (London: Field and Tuer, The Leadenhall Press) Vision of Britain online transcription

Journals

  • Creighton, Oliver, 2006, ''Castles of Communities': Medieval Town Defences in England; Wales and Gascony' Château Gaillard Vol. 22 p. 75-86
  • McCarthy, M.R., 1980, 'Excavations on the city defences, Carlisle' Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society Vol. 80 p. 69-78 online copy
  • Jones, B.C., 1976, 'The topography of Medieval Carlisle' Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society Vol. 76 p. 77-96 online copy
  • Perriam, D.R., 1976, 'The demolition of Carlisle city walls' Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society Vol. 76 p. 184-98 online copy
  • Charlesworth, D., 1974, 'Carlisle excavations' Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society Vol. 74 p. 211-2 online copy
  • Hogg, R., 1962, 'Medieval Town wall, Carlisle' Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society Vol. 62 p. 326-7 online copy
  • McKie, H.U., 1880, 'Remarks and Memoranda as to the Subsoil, Debris, and Ancient Remains discovered in cutting the Sewers in the City of Carlisle' Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society Vol. 4 p. 337-41 online copy

Primary Sources

  • Arnold, T. (ed), 1885, ‘Historia regum, A. D. 616-1129’ Symeonis Monachi Opera Omnia (London; Rolls series 75) Vol. 2 p. 267 (1120)
  • Green, J.A. (ed.), 2012, The Great Roll of the Pipe for the thirty first year of the reign of King Henry I, Michaelmas 1130 (Pipe Roll Society Publications 95)
  • Rothwell, H. (ed), 1975, English Historical Documents 1189-1327 p. 610-1 no. 131 (siege of 1315)
  • Bain, J., 1887 Calendar of Documents relating to Scotland (Edinburgh) Vol. 3 no. 369, 464, 524, 621 (siege of 1315) online copy
  • Lanercost Chronicle s.a. 1315
  • Maxwell Lyte, H.C. (ed), 1898, Calendar of Close Rolls Edward II (1323-1327) Vol. 4 p. 47-8 view online copy (requires subscription but searchable) [alternative online copy > https://archive.org/stream/cu31924091068977#page/n57/mode/2up]
  • - < >Also see the Gatehouse murage pages for full details of murage [grants > http://www.gatehouse-gazetteer.info/murage/murindex.html], [petitions > http://www.gatehouse-gazetteer.info/murage/mupindex.html ] and [other such > http://www.gatehouse-gazetteer.info/murage/muaindex.html]. < >

Other

  • Jackson, D., 2009, Report on an Archaeological Field Evaluation at West Walls, Carlisle, Cumbria (CP/925/09. NPA Ltd: Nenthead, Alston, Cumbria) online copy