Trematon Castle

Has been described as a Certain Timber Castle (Motte), and also as a Certain Masonry Castle

There are major building remains

NameTrematon Castle
Alternative NamesTremetone; Tremetune
Historic CountryCornwall
Modern AuthorityCornwall
1974 AuthorityCornwall
Civil ParishSaltash

Castle mentioned in Domesday and passed to the Duchy of Cornwall in 1337. It became neglected in the mid C14 and was in ruins by C16. There are the remains of C12 shell keep and the gatehouse, rebuilt in C13, is substantially intact. A deer park is named in 1282 but had lost the deer by 1500. Higher Lodge, a two storey crenellated house (2-star listed), was built within the castle bailey in 1807-8 and part of the curtain wall was demolished to provide views of the estuary. (PastScape)

Trematon Castle, mentioned in Domesday, passed to the Duchy of Cornwall in 1337. It became neglected in the mid C14 and was in ruins in C16. The C12 shell keep stands on a natural hillock having traces of buildings round its internal face. A large portion of the curtain wall, including parapet, still stands but a length to the south east was destroyed to provide a view of the estuary when the house was built within the bailey in 1807. No trace exists of the hall and chapel which originally stood in the bailey. The gatehouse, rebuilt in C13, is substantially complete although the windows have been enlarged. The deer park adjoining Trematon Castle was named in 1282 but had lost its deer by 1500 (Henderson). Bought by Richard, Earl of Cornwall, in 1270 from the Vautort family, it was bestowed on the Black Prince in 1337. At the time it was described as being well-walled, containing a kitchen, hall and two-storied chamber, the buildings being constructed on wood and plaster. There was also a chapel and gateway. Granted out between 1392-1443, it was again in royal hands from 1443, and was in ruins by Leland's time. In the early C19 a surveyor-general of Cornwall bought the property and built a house for himself in the bailey. He pulled down a section of the wall in order to improve the view. The keep, C13 gateway and the greater part of the bailey wall still remain largely intact. (PastScape–Ref. HKW)

This site is a scheduled monument protected by law

This is a Grade 2 listed building protected by law

Historic England Scheduled Monument Number
Historic England Listed Building number(s)
Images Of England
Historic England (PastScape) Defra or Monument number(s)
County Historic Environment Record
OS Map Grid ReferenceSX410580
Latitude50.4004096984863
Longitude-4.23769998550415
Eastings241060
Northings58010
HyperLink HyperLink HyperLink
Photo by Sylvia Joyce All Rights Reserved

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Books

  • Higham, Robert, 2015, Shell-keeps re-visited: the bailey on the motte? (Castle Studies Group - online publication) online copy
  • Creighton, Oliver, 2015, 'Castle, Landscape and Townscape in Thirteenth-Century England: Wallingford, Oxfordshire and the 'Princely Building Strategies' of Richard, Earl of Cornwall' in Jörg Peltzer (ed), Rank and Order: The Formation of Aristocratic Elites in Western and Central Europe, 500–1500 (Ostfildern: Thorbecke Jan Verlag) p. 309-341 (slight)
  • Goodall, John, 2011, The English Castle 1066-1650 (Yale University Press) p. 239, 260
  • Higham, Robert A., 1999, 'Castles, Fortified Houses and Fortified Towns in the Middle Ages' in Kain, R. and Ravenhill, W., Historical Atlas of South-West England (University of Exeter Press) p. 136-43
  • Salter, Mike, 1999, The Castles of Devon and Cornwall (Malvern: Folly Publications) p. 45-6
  • Pettifer, A., 1995, English Castles, A guide by counties (Woodbridge: Boydell Press) p. 24
  • Spreadbury, I. D., 1984, Castles in Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly (Redruth)
  • King, D.J.C., 1983, Castellarium Anglicanum (London: Kraus) Vol. 1 p. 76
  • Fry, P.S., 1980, Castles of the British Isles (David and Charles) p. 311
  • Price, M. and H., 1980, Castles of Cornwall (Bossiney Books) p. 105-117
  • Renn, D.F., 1973 (2 edn.), Norman Castles of Britain (London: John Baker) p. 330-2
  • Colvin, H.M., Brown, R.Allen and Taylor, A.J., 1963, The history of the King's Works Vol. 2: the Middle Ages (London: HMSO) p. 846-7
  • Henderson, Charles (edited by Rowse, A.L. and Henderson, M.I.), 1963 (original written 1935), Essays in Cornish history (Clarendon Press) p. 161
  • Toy, Sidney, 1953, The Castles of Great Britain (Heinemann) p. 50-1, 151-2
  • Toy, Sidney, 1939, Castles: A short History of Fortifications from 1600 BC to AD 1600 (London) p. 59-60
  • Oman, Charles W.C., 1926, Castles (1978 edn Beetham House: New York) p. 107-8
  • Armitage, Ella, 1912, The Early Norman Castles of the British Isles (London: John Murray) p. 226-7 online copy
  • Harvey, Alfred, 1911, Castles and Walled Towns of England (London: Methuen and Co)
  • Mackenzie, J.D., 1896, Castles of England; their story and structure (New York: Macmillan) Vol. 2 p. 19-20 online copy
  • Lysons, D. and S., 1814, Magna Britannia Vol. 3 Cornwall p. ccxl, 287-9, plates xxiii, xxxviii online transcription
  • Buck, Samuel and Nathaniel, 1774, Buck's Antiquities (London) Vol. 1 p. 34
  • Strutt, Joseph, 1774, Horda Angel-cynnan i, plate xxix
  • Grose, Francis, 1787, Antiquities of England and Wales (London) Vol. 8 p. 46-8 online copy
  • Borlase, William, 1754, Antiquites, historical and monumental, of the county of Cornwall (Oxford) p. 321-4

Antiquarian

  • Camden, Wm, 1607, Britannia hypertext critical edition by Dana F. Sutton (2004)
  • Chandler, John, 1993, John Leland's Itinerary: travels in Tudor England  (Sutton Publishing) p. 81-2, 87
  • Toulmin-Smith, Lucy (ed), 1907, The itinerary of John Leland in or about the years 1535-1543 (London: Bell and Sons) Vol. 1 p. 210 online copy

Journals

  • Goodall, J., 2015, 'An improbable partnership: Trematon Castle, Cornwall’ Country Life Vol. 209:22 p. 108-14
  • Harfield, C.G., 1991, 'A Hand-list of Castles Recorded in the Domesday Book' English Historical Review Vol. 106 p. 371-392 view online copy (subscription required)
  • Preston-Jones, Ann and Rose, Peter, 1986, 'Medieval Cornwall' Cornish Archaeology Vol. 25 p. 135-185 online copy
  • Kenyon, J.R., 1977, 'Early Gunports' Fort Vol. 4 p. 84
  • King, D.J.Cathcart, 1972, 'The Field Archaeology of mottes; Eine kurze übersicht' Château Gaillard Vol. 5 p. 101-112
  • Brown, R. Allen, 1959, 'A List of Castles, 1154–1216' English Historical Review Vol. 74 p. 249-280 (Reprinted in Brown, R. Allen, 1989, Castles, conquest and charters: collected papers (Woodbridge: Boydell Press) p. 90-121) view online copy (subscription required)
  • Hussey, 1948, Country Life Vol. 104 p. 428-31, 478-81
  • Toy, S., 1933, 'The Round Castles of Cornwall' Archaeologia Vol. 83 p. 217-19 (plans)
  • Armitage, E., 1904, 'The Early Norman Castles of England' English Historical Review Vol. 19 p. 209-245, 417-455 esp. 435 online copy
  • Clark, G.T., 1889, 'Contribution towards a complete list of moated mounds or burhs' The Archaeological Journal Vol. 46 p. 197-217 esp. 202 online copy

Primary Sources

  • 1086, Domesday Book online copy
  • Stubbs, W. (ed), 1880, The Minor Works comprising the Gesta regum with its continuation, the Actus pontificum, and the Mappa mundi, by Gervase, the Monk of Canterbury (London: Longman Rolls series 73) Vol. 2 p. 424 online copy
  • Rickard, John, 2002, The Castle Community. The Personnel of English and Welsh Castles, 1272-1422 (Boydell Press) (lists sources for 1272-1422) p. 145-6
  • C145/226(15) (Survey of 1382) The National Archives reference (calendared in Evans, D.L. (ed), 1957, Calendar of Inquisitions Miscellaneous (Chancery), preserved in the Public Record Office (H.M.S.O.) Vol. 4 p. 113 No. 205 [online copy > http://hdl.handle.net/2027/inu.30000095331652?urlappend=%3Bseq=125])
  • B.M. Harleian MS. 6252, f. 73 (Survey of temp. James I) British Library collection information
  • E120/1 (Survey of 1337) The National Archives reference

Other

  • Bridget Gillard, Sept 2005, Cornwall & Scilly Urban Survey: Saltash (Cornwall County Council) online copy