Castle Bryn Amlwg

Has been described as a Certain Timber Castle (Ringwork), and also as a Certain Masonry Castle

There are earthwork remains

NameCastle Bryn Amlwg
Alternative NamesAmting; Bryn Amlwc; Bettws y Crwyn; Cefn Fron; ?Ruffin; ?Hithoet
Historic CountryShropshire
Modern AuthorityShropshire
1974 AuthorityShropshire
Civil ParishBettws y Crwyn

Castell Bryn Amlwyg is a good example of a ringwork, which has been subsequently used to form an enclosure castle. The archaeological excavation here has demonstrated the nature and extent of the structural remains and the associated buried deposits, and has provided information about the sequence of construction of the enclosure castle. The association of a ringwork with an enclosure castle provides important evidence about the development of military architecture in the Welsh marches from the late 11th century to the 13th century. The structural remains existing here, together with the associated artefacts and organic remains surviving in the interior and within the ditch, will provide valuable evidence about the activities and lifestyles of those who inhabited the site. In addition, organic remains preserved in the buried ground surfaces beneath the inner and outer ramparts will provide information about the local environment and the use of the land prior to the construction of the ringwork. The monument remains a prominent feature within the landscape and as such provides a tangible reminder of the military and strategic importance of this area in the Middle Ages.

The monument includes the earthwork and buried remains of a ringwork and an enclosure castle. Traditionally known as Castell Bryn Amlwyg (castle on a prominent hill), it is situated at the south western end, and on the highest point, of a ridge overlooking the Nant Rhuddwr valley. It was strategically placed at the western extremity of the Marcher lordship of Clun, established in 1070. The castle lies just over 2km to the south of the Kerry Ridgeway, a long-established routeway which linked the medieval castle towns of Bishop's Castle and Clun, and which ran westwards into the heart of Wales. The elevated ground on which the castle sits has been adapted in order to form the ringwork, which is oval in plan with overall dimensions of 88m east to west by 104m south west to north east

The oval-shaped internal mound, which measures approximately 30m by 48m across the top, is bounded by a steep-sided rock-cut ditch. The ditch is surrounded by a steep-sided rampart between 10m and 15m wide, which has been partly formed by deliberately accentuating the natural fall at the end of the ridge. To the north east, the rampart is set further away from the mound thereby increasing the width of the ditch. This part of the defensive circuit has been modified by stone quarrying in the 19th and 20th centuries. A deep cut has been made through the bank, part of the ditch has been cut away and quarry spoil has been dumped over the outer defences to the north. Next to the outer side of the north eastern part of the rampart there are additional quarry hollows and spoil heaps, which are not included in the scheduling. To the north, corresponding with the gently rising spine of the ridge, is a break through the rampart, about 3.5m wide, which appears to mark the position of the original entrance passage to the interior of the castle. The positions of structures within the interior are marked by embanked wall footings, piles of collapsed masonry and level building platforms. A mass of collapsed stonework also lies within the ditch, particularly to the south and the north west. In 1963 a small-scale archaeological excavation was conducted in order to provide information about the structural history of the site. From this investigation it would appear that originally the interior of the ringwork had been defined by an inner rampart and that the contemporary structures were built of wood. At a later date a stone round tower or keep was built at the southern end of the interior of the ringwork. It measured about 6m in diameter internally, with a wall roughly 2.5m thick. A stone curtain wall, about 2m wide, was then constructed around the interior, abutting the tower and cutting into the remains of the earlier inner rampart. A D-shaped stone tower was added to eastern and western sides of the curtain wall, and a twin D-shaped towered gateway, also of stone, was constructed at the northern end of the interior. Following a major structural collapse, the gateway was rebuilt to form an enlarged gatehouse, and the adjoining part of the curtain wall to the west was also strengthened. A quantity of iron nails and animal bones, together with an iron arrowhead, was found in a deposit predating the curtain wall, and within the round tower large burnt timbers were discovered. It is considered that the ringwork was built in the late 11th or the early 12th century and would have been vital in securing the lordship boundary. The subsequent stone-built enclosure castle, comprising the round tower, curtain wall, D-shaped side and gate towers, is believed to have been built in the 13th century, during which time it served as a border outpost for the lordship. The rebuilding of the gateway and an adjoining portion of the curtain wall, probably in the later 13th century, emphasises the castle's continuing role as an important border fortification at this time. (Scheduling Report)

Gatehouse Comments

The modern name, in use locally, is Castle Cefn Fron. Paul Remfry informs Gatehouse this is the probably site of Castle Hithoet mentioned in contemporary documents.

- Philip Davis

This site is a scheduled monument protected by law

Not Listed

Historic England (PastScape) Defra or Monument number(s)
County Historic Environment Record
OS Map Grid ReferenceSO167846
HyperLink HyperLink HyperLink

No photos available. If you can provide pictures please contact Castlefacts

Most of the sites or buildings recorded in this web site are NOT open to the public and permission to visit a site must always be sought from the landowner or tenant.

Calculate Print


  • Davis, Paul R., 2007, Castles of the Welsh Princes (Y Lolfa) p. 67
  • Duckers, Peter and Anne, 2006, Castles of Shropshire (Stroud: Tempus) p. 41-4
  • Salter, Mike, 2001 (2edn), The Castles and Moated Mansions of Shropshire (Malvern: Folly Publications) p. 30
  • Pettifer, A., 1995, English Castles, A guide by counties (Woodbridge: Boydell Press) p. 219 (slight)
  • Jackson, M.J.,1988, Castles of Shropshire (Shrewsbury: Shropshire Libraries) p. 10-11
  • King, D.J.C., 1983, Castellarium Anglicanum (London: Kraus) Vol. 2 p. 420, 434, 565 (Bettws y Crwyn No. 2)
  • Fry, P.S., 1980, Castles of the British Isles (David and Charles) p. 196
  • Renn, D.F., 1973 (2 edn.), Norman Castles of Britain (London: John Baker) p. 121
  • Wall (after Downham), 1908, in Page, Wm (ed), VCH Shropshire Vol. 1 p. 383 (plan and section)
  • Mackenzie, J.D., 1896, Castles of England; their story and structure (New York: Macmillan) Vol. 2 p. 565


  • Brodie, Hugh, 2015, 'Apsidal and D-shaped towers of the Princes of Gwynedd' Archaeologia Cambrensis Vol. 164 p. 231-43
  • < >Alcock and others, 1967-8, 'Excavations at Castell Bryn Amlwg' Montgomeryshire Collections Vol. 60 p. 8-27 online copy < >
  • Hogg, A.H.A. and King, D.J.C., 1967, 'Masonry castles in Wales and the Marches: a list' Archaeologia Cambrensis Vol. 116 p. 71-132
  • King, D.J.C. and Alcock, L., 1969, 'Ringworks in England and Wales' Ch√Ęteau Gaillard Vol. 3 p. 90-127
  • Hogg, A.H.A. and King, D.J.C., 1963, 'Early castles in Wales and the Marches: a preliminary list' Archaeologia Cambrensis Vol. 112 p. 77-124
  • Spurgeon, 1962, Programme of Camb. Arch. Ass. meeting Vol. 12 p. 14-15
  • Renn, D.F., 1959, 'Mottes: a classification' Antiquity Vol. 33 p. 106-12
  • Noble, F., 1956, Transactions of the Radnorshire Society Vol. 26 p. 34-9
  • Anon, 1932, Archaeologia Cambrensis Vol. 87 p. 448
  • Chitty, L.F., 1927-8, Transactions of the Shropshire Archaeological and Historical Society Vol. 44 p. 6
  • 1916-17, Transactions of the Shropshire Archaeological and Historical Society Vol. 6 p. 129

Primary Sources


  • English Heritage, 2001, Scheduling Papers (Revision, 18/09/2001)
  • Historic Buildings and Monuments Commission, 1986, Scheduled Monument Report on SAM 30247 (09/04/1986)
  • Historic Buildings and Monuments Commission, 1986, Scheduled Monument Report on SAM 30653 (05/06/1986)